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      Synthesis of surface functionalized silica nanoparticles and their use as entomotoxic nanocides

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      Powder Technology
      Elsevier BV

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          Controlled growth of monodisperse silica spheres in the micron size range

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            Organically modified silica nanoparticles: a nonviral vector for in vivo gene delivery and expression in the brain.

            This article reports on the application of organically modified silica (ORMOSIL) nanoparticles as a nonviral vector for efficient in vivo gene delivery. Highly monodispersed, stable aqueous suspension of nanoparticles, surface-functionalized with amino groups for binding of DNA, were prepared and characterized. Stereotaxic injections of nanoparticles, complexed with plasmid DNA encoding for EGFP, into the mouse ventral midbrain and into lateral ventricle, allowed us to fluorescently visualize the extensive transfection of neuronal-like cells in substantia nigra and areas surrounding the lateral ventricle. No ORMOSIL-based toxicity was observed 4 weeks after transfection. The efficiency of transfection equaled or exceeded that obtained in studies using a viral vector. An in vivo optical imaging technique (a fiber-based confocal fluorescent imaging system) provided an effective means to show the retention of viability of the transfected cells. The ORMOSIL-mediated transfections also were used to manipulate the biology of the neural stem/progenitor cells in vivo. Transfection of a plasmid expressing the nucleus-targeting fibroblast growth factor receptor type 1 resulted in significant inhibition of the in vivo incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine into the DNA of the cells in the subventricular zone and the adjacent rostral migratory stream. This in vivo approach shows that the nuclear receptor can control the proliferation of the stem/progenitor cells in this region of the brain. The results of this nanomedicine approach using ORMOSIL nanoparticles as a nonviral gene delivery platform have a promising future direction for effective therapeutic manipulation of the neural stem/progenitor cells as well as in vivo targeted brain therapy.
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              Nanotechnology for parasitic plant control.

              The field of nanotechnology opens up novel potential applications for agriculture. Nanotechnology applications are already being explored and used in medicine and pharmacology, but interest for use in crop protection is just starting. The development of nanodevices as smart delivery systems to target specific sites and nanocarriers for controlled chemical release is discussed. Some nanotechnologies can improve existing crop management techniques in the short to medium term. Nanocapsules would help to avoid phytotoxicity on the crop by using systemic herbicides against parasitic weeds. Nanoencapsulation can also improve herbicide application, providing better penetration through cuticles and tissues, and allowing slow and constant release of the active substances. On the other hand, new crop management tools could be developed on the basis of medical applications. Nanoparticles have a great potential as 'magic bullets', loaded with herbicides, chemicals or nucleic acids, and targeting specific plant tissues or areas to release their charge. Viral capsids can be altered by mutagenesis to achieve different configurations and deliver specific nucleic acids, enzymes or antimicrobial peptides acting against the parasites. Many issues are still to be addressed, such as increasing the scale of production processes and lowering costs, as well as toxicological issues, but the foundations of a new plant treatment concept have been laid, and applications in the field of parasitic plant control can be started.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Powder Technology
                Powder Technology
                Elsevier BV
                00325910
                May 2012
                May 2012
                : 221
                : 252-256
                Article
                10.1016/j.powtec.2012.01.009
                f76f5705-81ff-4200-8c72-2471f432ee8c
                © 2012

                https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

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