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      Relevance of Sympathetic Nervous System Activation in Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome

      1 , 2 , 1 , 3 , 4 , 5 , *

      Journal of Diabetes Research

      Hindawi Publishing Corporation

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          Abstract

          Sympathetic tone is well recognised as being implicit in cardiovascular control. It is less readily acknowledged that activation of the sympathetic nervous system is integral in energy homeostasis and can exert profound metabolic effects. Accumulating data from animal and human studies suggest that central sympathetic overactivity plays a pivotal role in the aetiology and complications of several metabolic conditions that can cluster to form the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). Given the known augmented risk for type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and premature mortality associated with the MetS understanding the complex pathways underlying the metabolic derangements involved has become a priority. Many factors have been proposed to contribute to increased sympathetic nerve activity in metabolic abnormalities including obesity, impaired baroreflex sensitivity, hyperinsulinemia, and elevated adipokine levels. Furthermore there is mounting evidence to suggest that chronic sympathetic overactivity can potentiate two of the key metabolic alterations of the MetS, central obesity and insulin resistance. This review will discuss the regulatory role of the sympathetic nervous system in metabolic control and the proposed pathophysiology linking sympathetic overactivity to metabolic abnormalities. Pharmacological and device-based approaches that target central sympathetic drive will also be discussed as possible therapeutic options to improve metabolic control in at-risk patient cohorts.

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          Most cited references 107

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          Risks for all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes associated with the metabolic syndrome: a summary of the evidence.

           Earl S. Ford (2005)
          In recent years, several major organizations have endorsed the concept of the metabolic syndrome and developed working definitions for it. How well these definitions predict the risk for adverse events in people with the metabolic syndrome is only now being learned. The purpose of this study was to summarize the estimates of relative risk for all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes reported from prospective studies in samples from the general population using definitions of the metabolic syndrome developed by the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) and World Health Organization (WHO). The author reviewed prospective studies from July 1998 through August 2004. For studies that used the exact NCEP definition of the metabolic syndrome, random-effects estimates of combined relative risk were 1.27 (95% CI 0.90-1.78) for all-cause mortality, 1.65 (1.38-1.99) for cardiovascular disease, and 2.99 (1.96-4.57) for diabetes. For studies that used the most exact WHO definition of the metabolic syndrome, the fixed-effects estimates of relative risk were 1.37 (1.09-1.74) for all-cause mortality and 1.93 (1.39-2.67) for cardiovascular disease; the fixed-effects estimate was 2.60 (1.55-4.38) for coronary heart disease. These estimates suggest that the population-attributable fraction for the metabolic syndrome, as it is currently conceived, is approximately 6-7% for all-cause mortality, 12-17% for cardiovascular disease, and 30-52% for diabetes. Further research is needed to establish the use of the metabolic syndrome in predicting risk for death, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes in various population subgroups.
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            Catheter-based renal sympathetic denervation for resistant hypertension: a multicentre safety and proof-of-principle cohort study.

            Renal sympathetic hyperactivity is associated with hypertension and its progression, chronic kidney disease, and heart failure. We did a proof-of-principle trial of therapeutic renal sympathetic denervation in patients with resistant hypertension (ie, systolic blood pressure >/=160 mm Hg on three or more antihypertensive medications, including a diuretic) to assess safety and blood-pressure reduction effectiveness. We enrolled 50 patients at five Australian and European centres; 5 patients were excluded for anatomical reasons (mainly on the basis of dual renal artery systems). Patients received percutaneous radiofrequency catheter-based treatment between June, 2007, and November, 2008, with subsequent follow-up to 1 year. We assessed the effectiveness of renal sympathetic denervation with renal noradrenaline spillover in a subgroup of patients. Primary endpoints were office blood pressure and safety data before and at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after procedure. Renal angiography was done before, immediately after, and 14-30 days after procedure, and magnetic resonance angiogram 6 months after procedure. We assessed blood-pressure lowering effectiveness by repeated measures ANOVA. This study is registered in Australia and Europe with ClinicalTrials.gov, numbers NCT 00483808 and NCT 00664638. In treated patients, baseline mean office blood pressure was 177/101 mm Hg (SD 20/15), (mean 4.7 antihypertensive medications); estimated glomerular filtration rate was 81 mL/min/1.73m(2) (SD 23); and mean reduction in renal noradrenaline spillover was 47% (95% CI 28-65%). Office blood pressures after procedure were reduced by -14/-10, -21/-10, -22/-11, -24/-11, and -27/-17 mm Hg at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months, respectively. In the five non-treated patients, mean rise in office blood pressure was +3/-2, +2/+3, +14/+9, and +26/+17 mm Hg at 1, 3, 6, and 9 months, respectively. One intraprocedural renal artery dissection occurred before radiofrequency energy delivery, without further sequelae. There were no other renovascular complications. Catheter-based renal denervation causes substantial and sustained blood-pressure reduction, without serious adverse events, in patients with resistant hypertension. Prospective randomised clinical trials are needed to investigate the usefulness of this procedure in the management of this condition.
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              Impact of the metabolic syndrome on mortality from coronary heart disease, cardiovascular disease, and all causes in United States adults.

              Mortality resulting from coronary heart disease (CHD), cardiovascular disease (CVD), and all causes in persons with diabetes and pre-existing CVD is high; however, these risks compared with those with metabolic syndrome (MetS) are unclear. We examined the impact of MetS on CHD, CVD, and overall mortality among US adults. In a prospective cohort study, 6255 subjects 30 to 75 years of age (54% female) (representative of 64 million adults in the United States) from the Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were followed for a mean+/-SD of 13.3+/-3.8 years. MetS was defined by modified National Cholesterol Education Program criteria. From sample-weighted multivariable Cox proportional-hazards regression, compared with those with neither MetS nor prior CVD, age-, gender-, and risk factor-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for CHD mortality were 2.02 (95% CI, 1.42 to 2.89) for those with MetS and 4.19 (95% CI, 3.04 to 5.79) for those with pre-existing CVD. For CVD mortality, HRs were 1.82 (95% CI, 1.40 to 2.37) and 3.14 (95% CI, 2.49 to 3.96), respectively; for overall mortality, HRs were 1.40 (95% CI, 1.19 to 1.66) and 1.87 (95% CI, 1.60 to 2.17), respectively. In persons with MetS but without diabetes, risks of CHD and CVD mortality remained elevated. Diabetes predicted all mortality end points. Those with even 1 to 2 MetS risk factors were at increased risk for mortality from CHD and CVD. Moreover, MetS more strongly predicts CHD, CVD, and total mortality than its individual components. CHD, CVD, and total mortality are significantly higher in US adults with than in those without MetS.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Diabetes Res
                J Diabetes Res
                JDR
                Journal of Diabetes Research
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                2314-6745
                2314-6753
                2015
                30 April 2015
                : 2015
                Affiliations
                1Neurovascular Hypertension and Kidney Disease Laboratory, Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, VIC 3004, Australia
                2School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC 3004, Australia
                3Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, VIC 3004, Australia
                4Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC 3800, Australia
                5School of Medicine and Pharmacology, Royal Perth Hospital Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry & Health Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Level 3, MRF Building, Rear 50 Murray Street, Perth, WA 6000, Australia
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Janet H. Southerland

                Article
                10.1155/2015/341583
                4430650
                Copyright © 2015 A. A. Thorp and M. P. Schlaich.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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