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      Does Continuous Venovenous Hemodiafiltration Concomitant with Radiological Procedures Provide a Significant and Safe Removal of the Iodinated Contrast Ioversol?

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          Abstract

          Background: The purpose of our study was to investigate whether continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) concomitant with radiological procedures (RxP) was feasible, well tolerated and could significantly remove iodinated contrast media (CM). Methods: 26 patients with various degrees of renal insufficiency who were submitted to RxP were included in the study. The CVVHDF session was started immediately before CM administration. All the patients were evaluated for feasibility and tolerability; furthermore a pharmacokinetic study was done on 12 patients to calculate the amount of CM eliminated. The baseline incidence of CM nephropathy was studied in 25 consecutive historical controls. Results: The CM administered was 208 ± 146 g; the fractional removal of CM was 9.2 ± 4.9% during RxP and 30.9 ± 20.7% during the whole CVVHDF session. Hemodynamic tolerance was excellent. The incidence of CM nephropathy in the experimental and control groups was 37 and 24%, respectively. Conclusions: CVVHDF during RxP is feasible and well tolerated but ioversol removal is modest. This fact together with the high incidence of renal function impairment, the complexity of the procedure and its intrinsic risks, and the large amount of resources needed discourage the routine use of CVVHDF as a prophylactic tool to avoid CM nephropathy.

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          Effects of saline, mannitol, and furosemide to prevent acute decreases in renal function induced by radiocontrast agents.

          Injections of radiocontrast agents are a frequent cause of acute decreases in renal function, occurring most often in patients with chronic renal insufficiency and diabetes mellitus. We prospectively studied 78 patients with chronic renal insufficiency (mean [+/- SD] serum creatinine concentration, 2.1 +/- 0.6 mg per deciliter [186 +/- 53 mumol per liter]) who underwent cardiac angiography. The patients were randomly assigned to receive 0.45 percent saline alone for 12 hours before and 12 hours after angiography, saline plus mannitol, or saline plus furosemide. The mannitol and furosemide were given just before angiography. Serum creatinine was measured before and for 48 hours after angiography, and urine was collected for 24 hours after angiography. An acute radiocontrast-induced decrease in renal function was defined as an increase in the base-line serum creatinine concentration of at least 0.5 mg per deciliter (44 mumol per liter) within 48 hours after the injection of radiocontrast agents. Twenty of the 78 patients (26 percent) had an increase in the serum creatinine concentration of at least 0.5 mg per deciliter after angiography. Among the 28 patients in the saline group, 3 (11 percent) had such an increase in serum creatinine, as compared with 7 of 25 in the mannitol group (28 percent) and 10 of 25 in the furosemide group (40 percent) (P = 0.05). The mean increase in serum creatinine 48 hours after angiography was significantly greater in the furosemide group (P = 0.01) than in the saline group. In patients with chronic renal insufficiency who are undergoing cardiac angiography, hydration with 0.45 percent saline provides better protection against acute decreases in renal function induced by radiocontrast agents than does hydration with 0.45 percent saline plus mannitol or furosemide.
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            Prophylactic hemodialysis after radiocontrast media in patients with renal insufficiency is potentially harmful.

            Acute renal failure induced by contrast media is an important cause of hospital-acquired renal insufficiency. Preexisting renal failure and the dose of contrast media are known risk factors for the development of radiocontrast nephropathy. We performed a randomized trial to test whether radiocontrast nephropathy can be avoided by prophylactic hemodialysis immediately after the administration of contrast media in patients with impaired renal function. Renal function and other parameters, hemodialysis requirement, and relevant clinical events were recorded before and during the 6 days after administration of contrast media in 113 patients with a baseline serum creatinine level >200 microm/L (>2.3 mg/dL). Patients were randomly assigned to either hemodialysis (n = 55) or nonhemodialysis (n = 58) treatment after parenteral low-osmolality contrast media. The characteristics of the patients in the two groups were similar. Compared with baseline levels, the mean [+/- SD] serum creatinine level decreased at day 1 (277 +/- 95 microm/L), peaked at day 4 (353 +/- 126 microm/L), and returned to baseline at day 6 (327 +/- 119 microm/L, P <0.05 by analysis of variance) after administration of contrast media in the hemodialysis group, whereas in the nonhemodialysis group, no significant changes in mean serum creatinine level were observed. Eleven patients required 1 or more hemodialyses (8 in the hemodialysis group and 3 in the nonhemodialysis group, P = 0.12), 6 of whom (4 vs. 2, P = 0.44) required 3 or more hemodialyses. Clinically relevant events included pulmonary edema (1 vs. 4 patients, P = 0.36), myocardial infarction (2 vs. 2), stroke (2 vs. 0, P = 0.24), and death (1 vs. 1). The strategy of performing hemodialysis immediately after the administration of low-osmolality contrast media in all patients with a reduced renal function did not diminish the rate of complications, including radiocontrast nephropathy.
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              Acetylcysteine and nephrotoxic effects of radiographic contrast agents--a new use for an old drug.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BPU
                Blood Purif
                10.1159/issn.0253-5068
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                0253-5068
                1421-9735
                2003
                2003
                26 February 2003
                : 21
                : 2
                : 152-157
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Nephrology, Ospedale Civico, Lugano; bDepartment of Internal Medicine, Ospedale San Giovanni, Bellinzona; cDepartment of Pharmacy, ETH, Zurich; dDepartment of Cardiology, Cardiocentro Ticino, Lugano, and eDepartment of Internal Medicine, Ospedale la Carità, Locarno, Switzerland
                Article
                69153 Blood Purif 2003;21:152–157
                10.1159/000069153
                12601257
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 2, References: 22, Pages: 6
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/69153
                Categories
                Original Paper

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