Ligand binding modulates the energy landscape of proteins, thus altering their folding and allosteric conformational dynamics. To investigate such interplay, calmodulin has been a model protein. Despite much attention, fully resolved mechanisms of calmodulin folding/binding have not been elucidated. Here, by constructing a computational model that can integrate folding, binding, and allosteric motions, we studied in-depth folding of isolated calmodulin domains coupled with binding of two calcium ions and associated allosteric conformational changes. First, mechanically pulled simulations revealed coexistence of three distinct conformational states: the unfolded, the closed, and the open states, which is in accord with and augments structural understanding of recent single-molecule experiments. Second, near the denaturation temperature, we found the same three conformational states as well as three distinct binding states: zero, one, and two calcium ion bound states, leading to as many as nine states. Third, in terms of the nine-state representation, we found multiroute folding/binding pathways and shifts in their probabilities with the calcium concentration. At a lower calcium concentration, "combined spontaneous folding and induced fit" occurs, whereas at a higher concentration, "binding-induced folding" dominates. Even without calcium binding, we observed that the folding pathway of calmodulin domains can be modulated by the presence of metastable states. Finally, full-length calmodulin also exhibited an intriguing coupling between two domains when applying tension.