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      Peritoneal Fibrosis Induced by Intraperitoneal Methylglyoxal Injection: The Role of Concurrent Renal Dysfunction

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          Background: Peritoneal fibrosis (PF) is a serious pathophysiology of peritoneal dialysis (PD). An ongoing focus of research is the potential fibrogenic nature of methylglyoxal (MGO) in conventional PD fluid (PDF). The aim of the current study was to explore the effects of the uremic milieu on the promotion of PF by MGO using rats with adenine-induced renal failure (RF). Methods: Adenine-treated Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to receive continuous peritoneal injections of PDF with or without MGO for three weeks or were left untreated for the same duration. Rats without RF were also assigned to three groups. The peritoneal histology and expression levels of type I collagen, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA), Snail, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and the receptor for AGE (RAGE) were then analyzed. Results: Peritoneal treatment with 5 m<smlcap>M</smlcap> MGO accelerated the fibrous peritoneal thickening progression promoted by exposure to standard PDF in the rats with RF, but not in the rats with a normal renal function. Treatment with MGO significantly augmented the proliferation of mesenchymal-like mesothelial cells, accumulation of AGE, de novo expression of αSMA and RAGE and gene expression of type I collagen, TGF-β1, Snail and MMP-2, whereas both MGO and RF alone had, at most, marginal effects on the changes in these biological parameters. Conclusions: In the present study, the adverse effects of MGO on the peritoneum became more prominent under conditions of a uremic milieu. These findings imply that MGO and uremia act cooperatively to induce PF.

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          Epithelial to mesenchymal transition and peritoneal membrane failure in peritoneal dialysis patients: pathologic significance and potential therapeutic interventions.

          Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a form of renal replacement and is based on the use of the peritoneum as a semipermeable membrane across which ultrafiltration and diffusion take place. Nevertheless, continuous exposure to bioincompatible PD solutions and episodes of peritonitis or hemoperitoneum cause acute and chronic inflammation and injury to the peritoneal membrane, which progressively undergoes fibrosis and angiogenesis and, ultimately, ultrafiltration failure. The pathophysiologic mechanisms that are involved in peritoneal functional impairment have remained elusive. Resident fibroblasts and infiltrating inflammatory cells have been considered the main entities that are responsible for structural and functional alterations of the peritoneum. Recent findings, however, demonstrated that new fibroblastic cells may arise from local conversion of mesothelial cells (MC) by epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) during the inflammatory and repair responses that are induced by PD and pointed to MC as protagonists of peritoneal membrane deterioration. Submesothelial myofibroblasts, which participate in inflammatory responses, extracellular matrix accumulation, and angiogenesis, can originate from activated resident fibroblasts and from MC through EMT. This heterogeneous origin of myofibroblasts reveals new pathogenic mechanisms and offers novel therapeutic possibilities. This article provides a comprehensive review of recent advances on understanding the mechanisms that are implicated in peritoneal structural alterations, which have allowed the identification of the EMT of MC as a potential therapeutic target of membrane failure.
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            The pathophysiology of the peritoneal membrane.

            The development of peritoneal dialysis (PD) as a successful therapy has and still depends on experimental models to test and understand critical pieces of pathophysiology. To date, the majority of studies performed in rat and rabbit models derive mechanistic insights primarily on the basis of interventional pharmacologic agents, blocking antibodies, or transient expression systems. Because body size no longer limits the performance of in vivo studies of PD, genetic mouse models are increasingly available to investigate the molecular and pathophysiologic mechanisms of the peritoneal membrane. We illustrate in this review how these investigations are catching up with other areas of biomedical research and provide direct evidence for understanding transport and ultrafiltration, responses to infection, and structural changes including fibrosis and angiogenesis. These studies are relevant to mechanisms responsible not only for the major complications of PD but also for endothelial biology, host defense, inflammation, and tissue repair processes.
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              Hepatocyte growth factor enhances vascular endothelial growth factor-induced angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo.

              Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important mediator of angiogenesis in both physiological and pathological processes. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a mesenchyme-derived mitogen that also stimulates cell migration, and branching and/or tubular morphogenesis of epithelial and endothelial cells. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that simultaneous administration of HGF and VEGF would synergistically promote new blood vessel formation. HGF acted in concert with VEGF to promote human endothelial cell survival and tubulogenesis in 3-D type I collagen gels, a response that did not occur with either growth factor alone. The synergistic effects of VEGF and HGF on endothelial survival correlated with greatly augmented mRNA levels for the anti-apoptotic genes Bcl-2 and A1. Co-culture experiments with human neonatal dermal fibroblasts and human umbilical vein endothelial cells demonstrated that neonatal dermal fibroblasts, in combination with VEGF, stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells tubulogenesis through the paracrine secretion of HGF. Finally, in vivo experiments demonstrated that the combination of HGF and VEGF increased neovascularization in the rat corneal assay greater than either growth factor alone. We suggest that combination therapy using HGF and VEGF co-administration may provide a more effective strategy to achieve therapeutic angiogenesis.

                Author and article information

                Am J Nephrol
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                November 2014
                29 October 2014
                : 40
                : 4
                : 381-390
                Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi, Japan
                Author notes
                *Akira Onishi, Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Jichi Medical University, 3311-1 Yakushiji, Shimotsuke-Shi, Tochigi 329-0498 (Japan), E-Mail
                368424 Am J Nephrol 2014;40:381-390
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 3, Pages: 10
                Original Report: Laboratory Investigation


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