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      The Etiology of Pancreatic Manifestations in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease


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          Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an idiopathic chronic and recurrent condition that comprises Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. A pancreatic lesion is one of the extraintestinal lesions in patients with IBD. Acute pancreatitis is the representative manifestation, and various causes of pancreatitis have been reported, including those involving adverse effects of drug therapies such as 5-aminosalicylic acid and thiopurines, gall stones, gastrointestinal lesions on the duodenum, iatrogenic harm accompanying endoscopic procedures such as balloon endoscopy, and autoimmunity. Of these potential causes, autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a relatively newly recognized disease and is being increasingly diagnosed in IBD. AIP cases can be divided into type 1 cases involving lymphocytes and IgG4-positive plasma cells, and type 2 cases primarily involving neutrophils; the majority of AIP cases complicating IBD are type 2. The association between IBD and chronic pancreatitis, exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, pancreatic cancer, etc. has also been suggested; however, studies with high-quality level evidence are limited, and much remains unknown. In this review, we provide an overview of the etiology of pancreatic manifestation in patients with IBD.

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          International consensus diagnostic criteria for autoimmune pancreatitis: guidelines of the International Association of Pancreatology.

          To achieve the goal of developing international consensus diagnostic criteria (ICDC) for autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). An international panel of experts met during the 14th Congress of the International Association of Pancreatology held in Fukuoka, Japan, from July 11 through 13, 2010. The proposed criteria represent a consensus opinion of the working group. Autoimmune pancreatitis was classified into types 1 and 2. The ICDC used 5 cardinal features of AIP, namely, imaging of pancreatic parenchyma and duct, serology, other organ involvement, pancreatic histology, and an optional criterion of response to steroid therapy. Each feature was categorized as level 1 and 2 findings depending on the diagnostic reliability. The diagnosis of type 1 and type 2 AIP can be definitive or probable, and in some cases, the distinction between the subtypes may not be possible (AIP-not otherwise specified). The ICDC for AIP were developed based on the agreement of an international panel of experts in the hope that they will promote worldwide recognition of AIP. The categorization of AIP into types 1 and 2 should be helpful for further clarification of the clinical features, pathogenesis, and natural history of these diseases.
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            Lymphoproliferative disorders in patients receiving thiopurines for inflammatory bowel disease: a prospective observational cohort study.

            Reports of an increased risk of lymphoproliferative disorders in patients receiving thiopurines for inflammatory bowel disease are controversial. We assessed this risk in a prospective observational cohort study. 19,486 patients with inflammatory bowel disease, of whom 11,759 (60.3%) had Crohn's disease and 7727 (39.7%) had ulcerative colitis or unclassified inflammatory bowel disease, were enrolled in a nationwide French cohort by 680 gastroenterologists, who reported details of immunosuppressive therapy during the observation period, cases of cancer, and deaths. The risk of lymphoproliferative disorder was assessed according to thiopurine exposure. Median follow-up was 35 months (IQR 29-40). At baseline, 5867 (30.1%) of patients were receiving, 2809 (14.4%) had discontinued, and 10,810 (55.5%) had never received thiopurines. 23 new cases of lymphoproliferative disorder were diagnosed, consisting of one case of Hodgkin's lymphoma and 22 cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoproliferative disorder. The incidence rates of lymphoproliferative disorder were 0.90 per 1000 (95% CI 0.50-1.49) patient-years in those receiving, 0.20/1000 (0.02-0.72) patient-years in those who had discontinued, and 0.26/1000 (0.10-0.57) patient-years in those who had never received thiopurines (p=0.0054). The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio of lymphoproliferative disorder between patients receiving thiopurines and those who had never received the drugs was 5.28 (2.01-13.9, p=0.0007). Most cases associated with thiopurine exposure matched the pathological range of post-transplant disease. Patients receiving thiopurines for inflammatory bowel disease have an increased risk of developing lymphoproliferative disorders. Programme Hospitalier de Recherche Clinique National (AOM05157), Association François Aupetit, Délégation Inter-régionale de la Recherche clinique Ile de France-Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Ligue contre le Cancer, and Fonds de Recherche de la Société Nationale Française de Gastro-entérologie.
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              Primary sclerosing cholangitis – a comprehensive review

              Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a rare disorder characterised by multi-focal bile duct strictures and progressive liver disease. Inflammatory bowel disease is usually present and there is a high risk of cholangiocarcinoma and colorectal cancer. Most patients ultimately require liver transplantation, after which disease recurrence may occur. With limited therapeutic options and a lack of proven surveillance strategies, patients currently have significant unmet needs. In the present seminar, we provide a comprehensive review of the status of the field. We emphasise developments related to patient stratification and disease behaviour, and provide an overview of management options from a practical, patient-centered perspective. We survey advances made in the understanding of PSC pathogenesis and summarise the ongoing efforts to develop an effective therapy based on these insights.

                Author and article information

                J Clin Med
                J Clin Med
                Journal of Clinical Medicine
                26 June 2019
                July 2019
                : 8
                : 7
                : 916
                Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo 060-8543, Japan
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: hiropynakase@ 123456gmail.com ; Tel.: +81-11-611-2111
                Author information
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                : 19 May 2019
                : 21 June 2019

                pancreatitis,autoimmune pancreatitis,inflammatory bowel disease


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