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      Arterial Pressure and Flow Wave Analysis Using Time-Domain 1-D Hemodynamics

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          Abstract

          We reviewed existing methods for analyzing, in the time domain, physical mechanisms underlying the patterns of blood pressure and flow waveforms in the arterial system. These are wave intensity analysis and separations into several types of waveforms: (i) forward- and backward-traveling, (ii) peripheral and conduit, or (iii) reservoir and excess. We assessed the physical information provided by each method and showed how to combine existing methods in order to quantify contributions to numerically generated waveforms from previous cardiac cycles and from specific regions and properties of the numerical domain: the aortic root, arterial bifurcations and tapered vessels, peripheral reflection sites, and the Windkessel function of the aorta. We illustrated our results with numerical examples involving generalized arterial stiffening in a distributed one-dimensional model or localized changes in the model parameters due to a femoral stenosis, carotid stent or abdominal aortic aneurysm.

          Electronic supplementary material

          The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10439-014-1087-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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          Most cited references 30

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          Effects of aging on changing arterial compliance and left ventricular load in a northern Chinese urban community.

          Pulse wave velocity (PWV) was measured by means of transcutaneous Doppler techniques in the aorta, right arm, and right leg of 480 normal subjects of both sexes in urban Beijing, China (age range 3 to 89 years, mean age 41 +/- 20.8 SD); supine blood pressure was recorded in the brachial artery of each subject with standard sphygmomanometric procedures. Serum cholesterol was determined in a subgroup of 79 subjects (age 17 to 85 years, mean 47 +/- 26 SD). PWV (y in cm/sec) was found to vary with age (x, years) at each of the three locations according to the following regression equations: aorta, y = 9.2x + 615, r = .673 (p less than .001); right arm, y = 4.8x + 998, r = .453 (p less than .001); right leg, y = 5.6x + 791, r = .630 (p less than .001). Systolic, diastolic, mean, and pulse pressures were found to increase with age. PWV also increased with mean supine blood pressure but was not related to serum cholesterol (average 4.49 +/- 0.11 [SEM], mmol/l). Compared with that of Western populations, serum cholesterol tended to be lower at all age groups, systolic pressure higher at ages over 35 years, and PWV higher at all ages. Because change in PWV is directly related to change in arterial compliance, these results indicate that aging and not concomitant atherosclerosis (known to be rare in Asian populations) is the dominant factor associated with reduced arterial compliance and increased left ventricular load in these subjects.
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            Numerical simulation and experimental validation of blood flow in arteries with structured-tree outflow conditions.

            Blood flow in the large systemic arteries is modeled using one-dimensional equations derived from the axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations for flow in compliant and tapering vessels. The arterial tree is truncated after the first few generations of large arteries with the remaining small arteries and arterioles providing outflow boundary conditions for the large arteries. By modeling the small arteries and arterioles as a structured tree, a semi-analytical approach based on a linearized version of the governing equations can be used to derive an expression for the root impedance of the structured tree in the frequency domain. In the time domain, this provides the proper outflow boundary condition. The structured tree is a binary asymmetric tree in which the radii of the daughter vessels are scaled linearly with the radius of the parent vessel. Blood flow and pressure in the large vessels are computed as functions of time and axial distance within each of the arteries. Comparison between the simulations and magnetic resonance measurements in the ascending aorta and nine peripheral locations in one individual shows excellent agreement between the two.
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              An Anatomically Based Model of Transient Coronary Blood Flow in the Heart

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                marie.willemet@kcl.ac.uk
                jordi.alastruey-arimon@kcl.ac.uk
                Journal
                Ann Biomed Eng
                Ann Biomed Eng
                Annals of Biomedical Engineering
                Springer US (Boston )
                0090-6964
                1573-9686
                20 August 2014
                20 August 2014
                2015
                : 43
                : 190-206
                Affiliations
                Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, St. Thomas’ Hospital, King’s College London, London, UK
                Author notes

                Associate Editor Diego Gallo oversaw the review of this article.

                Article
                1087
                10.1007/s10439-014-1087-4
                4286649
                25138163
                © The Author(s) 2014

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and the source are credited.

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                © Biomedical Engineering Society 2015

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