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      Pediatric Stroke: A Review

      review-article

      1 , * , 2

      Emergency Medicine International

      Hindawi Publishing Corporation

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          Abstract

          Stroke is relatively rare in children, but can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Understanding that children with strokes present differently than adults and often present with unique risk factors will optimize outcomes in children. Despite an increased incidence of pediatric stroke, there is often a delay in diagnosis, and cases may still remain under- or misdiagnosed. Clinical presentation will vary based on the child's age, and children will have risk factors for stroke that are less common than in adults. Management strategies in children are extrapolated primarily from adult studies, but with different considerations regarding short-term anticoagulation and guarded recommendations regarding thrombolytics. Although most recommendations for management are extrapolated from adult populations, they still remain useful, in conjunction with pediatric-specific considerations.

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          Most cited references 115

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          Efficacy and safety of recombinant activated factor VII for acute intracerebral hemorrhage.

          Intracerebral hemorrhage is the least treatable form of stroke. We performed this phase 3 trial to confirm a previous study in which recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) reduced growth of the hematoma and improved survival and functional outcomes. We randomly assigned 841 patients with intracerebral hemorrhage to receive placebo (268 patients), 20 microg of rFVIIa per kilogram of body weight (276 patients), or 80 microg of rFVIIa per kilogram (297 patients) within 4 hours after the onset of stroke. The primary end point was poor outcome, defined as severe disability or death according to the modified Rankin scale 90 days after the stroke. Treatment with 80 microg of rFVIIa per kilogram resulted in a significant reduction in growth in volume of the hemorrhage. The mean estimated increase in volume of the intracerebral hemorrhage at 24 hours was 26% in the placebo group, as compared with 18% in the group receiving 20 microg of rFVIIa per kilogram (P=0.09) and 11% in the group receiving 80 microg (P<0.001). The growth in volume of intracerebral hemorrhage was reduced by 2.6 ml (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.3 to 5.5; P=0.08) in the group receiving 20 microg of rFVIIa per kilogram and by 3.8 ml (95% CI, 0.9 to 6.7; P=0.009) in the group receiving 80 microg, as compared with the placebo group. Despite this reduction in bleeding, there was no significant difference among the three groups in the proportion of patients with poor clinical outcome (24% in the placebo group, 26% in the group receiving 20 microg of rFVIIa per kilogram, and 29% in the group receiving 80 microg). The overall frequency of thromboembolic serious adverse events was similar in the three groups; however, arterial events were more frequent in the group receiving 80 microg of rFVIIa than in the placebo group (9% vs. 4%, P=0.04). Hemostatic therapy with rFVIIa reduced growth of the hematoma but did not improve survival or functional outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00127283 [ClinicalTrials.gov].). Copyright 2008 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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            Management of stroke in infants and children: a scientific statement from a Special Writing Group of the American Heart Association Stroke Council and the Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young.

            The purpose of this statement is to review the literature on childhood stroke and to provide recommendations for optimal diagnosis and treatment. This statement is intended for physicians who are responsible for diagnosing and treating infants, children, and adolescents with cerebrovascular disease. The Writing Group members were appointed by the American Heart Association Stroke Council's Scientific Statement Oversight Committee. The panel included members with several different areas of expertise. Each of the panel's recommendations was weighted by applying the American Heart Association Stroke Council's Levels of Evidence grading algorithm. After being reviewed by panel members, the manuscript was reviewed by 4 expert peer reviewers and by members of the Stroke Council Leadership Committee and was approved by the American Heart Association Science Advisory and Coordinating Committee. We anticipate that this statement will need to be updated in 4 years. Evidence-based recommendations are provided for the prevention of ischemic stroke caused by sickle cell disease, moyamoya disease, cervicocephalic arterial dissection, and cardiogenic embolism. Recommendations on the evaluation and management of hemorrhagic stroke also are provided. Protocols for dosing of heparin and warfarin in children are suggested. Also included are recommendations on the evaluation and management of perinatal stroke and cerebral sinovenous thrombosis in children.
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              Cerebral sinovenous thrombosis in children.

              Cerebral sinovenous thrombosis in children is a serious disorder, and information is needed about its prevention and treatment. The Canadian Pediatric Ischemic Stroke Registry was initiated in 1992 at the 16 pediatric tertiary care centers in Canada. Children (newborn to 18 years of age) with symptoms and radiographic confirmation of sinovenous thrombosis were included. During the first six years of the registry, 160 consecutive children with sinovenous thrombosis were enrolled, and the incidence of the disorder was 0.67 cases per 100,000 children per year. Neonates were most commonly affected. Fifty-eight percent of the children had seizures, 76 percent had diffuse neurologic signs, and 42 percent had focal neurologic signs. Risk factors included head and neck disorders (in 29 percent), acute systemic illnesses (in 54 percent), chronic systemic diseases (in 36 percent), and prothrombotic states (in 41 percent). Venous infarcts occurred in 41 percent of the children. Fifty-three percent of the children received antithrombotic agents. Neurologic deficits were present in 38 percent of the children, and 8 percent died; half the deaths were due to sinovenous thrombosis. Predictors of adverse neurologic outcomes were seizures at presentation and venous infarcts. Sinovenous thrombosis in children affects primarily neonates and results in neurologic impairment or death in approximately half the cases. The occurrence of venous infarcts or seizures portends a poor outcome.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Emerg Med Int
                EMI
                Emergency Medicine International
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                2090-2840
                2090-2859
                2011
                27 December 2011
                : 2011
                Affiliations
                1Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
                2Department of Emergency Medicine and Pediatrics, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI 02903, USA
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Walter Mauritz

                Article
                10.1155/2011/734506
                3255104
                22254140
                f7b8c28b-4b23-4714-bcee-74f34909c37c
                Copyright © 2011 D. S. Tsze and J. H. Valente.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Review Article

                Emergency medicine & Trauma

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