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      An in situ SAXS investigation of the formation of silver nanoparticles and bimetallic silver–gold nanoparticles in controlled wet-chemical reduction synthesis†

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      Nanoscale Advances
      RSC

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          Abstract

          We present a study on the formation of silver (Ag) and bimetallic silver–gold (AgAu) nanoparticles monitored by in situ SAXS as well as by ex situ TEM, XRD and UV-vis analysis in a flow reactor at controlled reaction temperature. The formation mechanism of the nanoparticles is derived from the structural parameters obtained from the experimental data. The evolution of the average particle size of pure and alloyed nanoparticles shows that the particle growth occurs initially by a coalescence mechanism. The later growth of pure silver nanoparticles is well described by Ostwald ripening and for the alloyed nanoparticles by a process with a significantly slower growth rate. Additionally, the SAXS data of pure silver nanoparticles revealed two major populations of nanoparticles, the first one with a continuous crystal growth to a saturation plateau, and the second one probably with a continuous emergence of small new crystals. The particle sizes obtained by SAXS agree well with the results from transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The present study demonstrates the capability of an in situ investigation of synthesis processes using a laboratory based SAXS instrument. Online monitoring of the synthesis permitted a detailed investigation of the structural evolution of the system.

          Abstract

          In situ investigation of metallic nanoparticle synthesis with an online monitoring of the system by SAXS. Determination of structural parameters and growth processes. Ag-NP synthesis presented a bimodal system with the presence of small particles (∼3 nm).

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          Most cited references64

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          ImageJ2: ImageJ for the next generation of scientific image data

          Background ImageJ is an image analysis program extensively used in the biological sciences and beyond. Due to its ease of use, recordable macro language, and extensible plug-in architecture, ImageJ enjoys contributions from non-programmers, amateur programmers, and professional developers alike. Enabling such a diversity of contributors has resulted in a large community that spans the biological and physical sciences. However, a rapidly growing user base, diverging plugin suites, and technical limitations have revealed a clear need for a concerted software engineering effort to support emerging imaging paradigms, to ensure the software’s ability to handle the requirements of modern science. Results We rewrote the entire ImageJ codebase, engineering a redesigned plugin mechanism intended to facilitate extensibility at every level, with the goal of creating a more powerful tool that continues to serve the existing community while addressing a wider range of scientific requirements. This next-generation ImageJ, called “ImageJ2” in places where the distinction matters, provides a host of new functionality. It separates concerns, fully decoupling the data model from the user interface. It emphasizes integration with external applications to maximize interoperability. Its robust new plugin framework allows everything from image formats, to scripting languages, to visualization to be extended by the community. The redesigned data model supports arbitrarily large, N-dimensional datasets, which are increasingly common in modern image acquisition. Despite the scope of these changes, backwards compatibility is maintained such that this new functionality can be seamlessly integrated with the classic ImageJ interface, allowing users and developers to migrate to these new methods at their own pace. Conclusions Scientific imaging benefits from open-source programs that advance new method development and deployment to a diverse audience. ImageJ has continuously evolved with this idea in mind; however, new and emerging scientific requirements have posed corresponding challenges for ImageJ’s development. The described improvements provide a framework engineered for flexibility, intended to support these requirements as well as accommodate future needs. Future efforts will focus on implementing new algorithms in this framework and expanding collaborations with other popular scientific software suites. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12859-017-1934-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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            The kinetics of precipitation from supersaturated solid solutions

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              Gold nanoparticles: assembly, supramolecular chemistry, quantum-size-related properties, and applications toward biology, catalysis, and nanotechnology.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nanoscale Adv
                Nanoscale Adv
                NA
                NAADAI
                Nanoscale Advances
                RSC
                2516-0230
                25 November 2019
                22 January 2020
                25 November 2019
                : 2
                : 1
                : 225-238
                Affiliations
                [a] Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo Rua do Matão 1371 São Paulo 05508-090 Brazil
                [b] Inorganic Chemistry and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE), University of Duisburg-Essen Universitaetsstr. 5-7 45117 Essen Germany matthias.epple@ 123456uni-due.de
                [c] Laboratório de Microscopia e Microanálises (LMM), Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP 05508-000 São Paulo – SP Brazil crislpo@ 123456if.usp.br
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1641-7068
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3426-6507
                Article
                c9na00569b
                10.1039/c9na00569b
                9418936
                36133991
                f7becb69-42d2-44c1-8d55-40060ac62bc3
                This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry
                History
                : 6 September 2019
                : 11 November 2019
                Page count
                Pages: 14
                Funding
                Funded by: Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico, doi 10.13039/501100003593;
                Award ID: 304861/2015-4
                Funded by: Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo, doi 10.13039/501100001807;
                Award ID: 2016/24531-3
                Award ID: 2018/16092-5
                Funded by: Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, doi 10.13039/501100001659;
                Award ID: 22/44-1
                Funded by: Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior, doi 10.13039/501100002322;
                Award ID: 431/15
                Categories
                Chemistry
                Custom metadata
                Paginated Article

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