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      Bioactivity of Piper extracts on Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in tomato Translated title: Bioatividade de extratos de Piper sobre Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) em tomateiro

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          Abstract

          The objective of this work was to evaluate the bioactivity of ethanolic leaf extracts from four species of the genus Piper against the tomato leafminer Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) under laboratory conditions. The evaluated species were: P. amalago var. medium, P. glabratum, P. mikanianum, and P. mollicomum. In the initial screening assay (extract concentration of 2,000 mg L-1), all tested extracts caused significant larval mortality, particularly the extract of P. amalago var. medium; however, no extracts reduced the weight of the surviving larvae. The extract from P. amalago var. medium at the concentration of 1,011 mg L-1 caused a significant lengthening of the larval and pupal stages. The ethanolic leaf extract of P. amalago var. medium is promising for the control of T. absoluta larvae in tomato, since it exhibits acute toxicity toward these caterpillars at the concentration of 2,000 mg L-1 and affects the insect's development by reducing its survival and lengthening the larval and pupal stages.

          Translated abstract

          O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a bioatividade de extratos etanólicos de folhas de quatro espécies do gênero Piper sobre a traça-do-tomateiro Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), em condições de laboratório. As espécies avaliadas foram: P. amalago var. medium, P. glabratum, P. mikanianum e P. mollicomum. Na triagem inicial (concentração do extrato de 2.000 mg L-1), todos os extratos testados causaram significativa mortalidade larval, principalmente o extrato de P. amalago var. medium; entretanto, nenhum extrato ocasionou redução do peso das lagartas sobreviventes. O extrato de P. amalago var. medium na concentração de 1.011 mg L-1 promoveu alongamento significativo da fase larval e pupal. O extrato etanólico de folhas de P. amalago var. medium é promissor no controle de lagartas de T. absoluta em tomateiro, pois exibe toxicidade aguda a lagartas na concentração de 2.000 mg L-1 e afeta o desenvolvimento do inseto, ao reduzir a sua sobrevivência e alongar as fases larval e pupal.

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          Most cited references 35

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          R: A language and environment for statistical computing: R foundation for statistical computing

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            Control failure likelihood and spatial dependence of insecticide resistance in the tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta.

            Insecticide resistance is a likely cause of field control failures of Tuta absoluta, but the subject has been little studied. Therefore, resistance to ten insecticides was surveyed in seven representative field populations of this species. The likelihood of control failures was assessed, as well as weather influence and the spatial dependence of insecticide resistance. No resistance or only low resistance levels were observed for pyrethroids (bifenthrin and permethrin), abamectin, spinosad, Bacillus thuringiensis and the mixture deltamethrin + triazophos (<12.5-fold). In contrast, indoxacarb exhibited moderate levels of resistance (up to 27.5-fold), and chitin synthesis inhibitors exhibited moderate to high levels of resistance (up to 222.3-fold). Evidence of control failures was obtained for bifenthrin, permethrin, diflubenzuron, teflubenzuron, triflumuron and B. thuringiensis. Weather conditions favour resistance to some insecticides, and spatial dependence was observed only for bifenthrin and permethrin. Insecticide resistance in field populations of the tomato pinworm prevails for the insecticides nowadays most frequently used against them-the chitin synthesis inhibitors (diflubenzuron, triflumuron and teflubenzuron). Local selection favoured by weather conditions and dispersal seem important for pyrethroid resistance evolution among Brazilian populations of T. absoluta and should be considered in designing pest management programmes. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.
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              Spinosad and the Tomato Borer Tuta absoluta: A Bioinsecticide, an Invasive Pest Threat, and High Insecticide Resistance

              The introduction of an agricultural pest species into a new environment is a potential threat to agroecosystems of the invaded area. The phytosanitary concern is even greater if the introduced pest’s phenotype expresses traits that will impair the management of that species. The invasive tomato borer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is one such species and the characterization of the insecticide resistance prevailing in the area of origin is important to guide management efforts in new areas of introduction. The spinosad is one the main insecticides currently used in Brazil for control of the tomato borer; Brazil is the likely source of the introduction of the tomato borer into Europe. For this reason, spinosad resistance in Brazilian populations of this species was characterized. Spinosad resistance has been reported in Brazilian field populations of this pest species, and one resistant population that was used in this study was subjected to an additional seven generations of selection for spinosad resistance reaching levels over 180,000-fold. Inheritance studies indicated that spinosad resistance is monogenic, incompletely recessive and autosomal with high heritability (h 2 = 0.71). Spinosad resistance was unstable without selection pressure with a negative rate of change in the resistance level ( = −0.51) indicating an associated adaptive cost. Esterases and cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases titration decreased with spinosad selection, indicating that these detoxification enzymes are not the underlying resistance mechanism. Furthermore, the cross-resistance spectrum was restricted to the insecticide spinetoram, another spinosyn, suggesting that altered target site may be the mechanism involved. Therefore, the suspension of spinosyn use against the tomato borer would be a useful component in spinosad resistance management for this species. Spinosad use against this species in introduced areas should be carefully monitored to prevent rapid selection of high levels of resistance and the potential for its spread to new areas.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidade Estadual Paulista Brazil
                [2 ] Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária e Extensão Rural de Santa Catarina Brazil
                [3 ] Universidade de São Paulo Brazil
                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                pab
                Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira
                Pesq. agropec. bras.
                Embrapa Informação Tecnológica (Brasília )
                1678-3921
                March 2015
                : 50
                : 3
                : 196-202
                S0100-204X2015000300196
                10.1590/S0100-204X2015000300002

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                Product
                Product Information: SciELO Brazil
                Categories
                AGRICULTURE, DAIRY & ANIMAL SCIENCE
                AGRICULTURE, MULTIDISCIPLINARY

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