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      Metabolomics Workbench: An international repository for metabolomics data and metadata, metabolite standards, protocols, tutorials and training, and analysis tools

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          Abstract

          The Metabolomics Workbench, available at www.metabolomicsworkbench.org, is a public repository for metabolomics metadata and experimental data spanning various species and experimental platforms, metabolite standards, metabolite structures, protocols, tutorials, and training material and other educational resources. It provides a computational platform to integrate, analyze, track, deposit and disseminate large volumes of heterogeneous data from a wide variety of metabolomics studies including mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR) data spanning over 20 different species covering all the major taxonomic categories including humans and other mammals, plants, insects, invertebrates and microorganisms. Additionally, a number of protocols are provided for a range of metabolite classes, sample types, and both MS and NMR-based studies, along with a metabolite structure database. The metabolites characterized in the studies available on the Metabolomics Workbench are linked to chemical structures in the metabolite structure database to facilitate comparative analysis across studies. The Metabolomics Workbench, part of the data coordinating effort of the National Institute of Health (NIH) Common Fund's Metabolomics Program, provides data from the Common Fund's Metabolomics Resource Cores, metabolite standards, and analysis tools to the wider metabolomics community and seeks data depositions from metabolomics researchers across the world.

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          Most cited references 21

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          Metabolomics--the link between genotypes and phenotypes.

           Oliver Fiehn (2001)
          Metabolites are the end products of cellular regulatory processes, and their levels can be regarded as the ultimate response of biological systems to genetic or environmental changes. In parallel to the terms 'transcriptome' and proteome', the set of metabolites synthesized by a biological system constitute its 'metabolome'. Yet, unlike other functional genomics approaches, the unbiased simultaneous identification and quantification of plant metabolomes has been largely neglected. Until recently, most analyses were restricted to profiling selected classes of compounds, or to fingerprinting metabolic changes without sufficient analytical resolution to determine metabolite levels and identities individually. As a prerequisite for metabolomic analysis, careful consideration of the methods employed for tissue extraction, sample preparation, data acquisition, and data mining must be taken. In this review, the differences among metabolite target analysis, metabolite profiling, and metabolic fingerprinting are clarified, and terms are defined. Current approaches are examined, and potential applications are summarized with a special emphasis on data mining and mathematical modelling of metabolism.
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            MassBank: a public repository for sharing mass spectral data for life sciences.

            MassBank is the first public repository of mass spectra of small chemical compounds for life sciences (<3000 Da). The database contains 605 electron-ionization mass spectrometry (EI-MS), 137 fast atom bombardment MS and 9276 electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS(n) data of 2337 authentic compounds of metabolites, 11 545 EI-MS and 834 other-MS data of 10,286 volatile natural and synthetic compounds, and 3045 ESI-MS(2) data of 679 synthetic drugs contributed by 16 research groups (January 2010). ESI-MS(2) data were analyzed under nonstandardized, independent experimental conditions. MassBank is a distributed database. Each research group provides data from its own MassBank data servers distributed on the Internet. MassBank users can access either all of the MassBank data or a subset of the data by specifying one or more experimental conditions. In a spectral search to retrieve mass spectra similar to a query mass spectrum, the similarity score is calculated by a weighted cosine correlation in which weighting exponents on peak intensity and the mass-to-charge ratio are optimized to the ESI-MS(2) data. MassBank also provides a merged spectrum for each compound prepared by merging the analyzed ESI-MS(2) data on an identical compound under different collision-induced dissociation conditions. Data merging has significantly improved the precision of the identification of a chemical compound by 21-23% at a similarity score of 0.6. Thus, MassBank is useful for the identification of chemical compounds and the publication of experimental data. 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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              HMDB: a knowledgebase for the human metabolome

              The Human Metabolome Database (HMDB, http://www.hmdb.ca) is a richly annotated resource that is designed to address the broad needs of biochemists, clinical chemists, physicians, medical geneticists, nutritionists and members of the metabolomics community. Since its first release in 2007, the HMDB has been used to facilitate the research for nearly 100 published studies in metabolomics, clinical biochemistry and systems biology. The most recent release of HMDB (version 2.0) has been significantly expanded and enhanced over the previous release (version 1.0). In particular, the number of fully annotated metabolite entries has grown from 2180 to more than 6800 (a 300% increase), while the number of metabolites with biofluid or tissue concentration data has grown by a factor of five (from 883 to 4413). Similarly, the number of purified compounds with reference to NMR, LC-MS and GC-MS spectra has more than doubled (from 380 to more than 790 compounds). In addition to this significant expansion in database size, many new database searching tools and new data content has been added or enhanced. These include better algorithms for spectral searching and matching, more powerful chemical substructure searches, faster text searching software, as well as dedicated pathway searching tools and customized, clickable metabolic maps. Changes to the user-interface have also been implemented to accommodate future expansion and to make database navigation much easier. These improvements should make the HMDB much more useful to a much wider community of users.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nucleic Acids Res
                Nucleic Acids Res
                nar
                nar
                Nucleic Acids Research
                Oxford University Press
                0305-1048
                1362-4962
                04 January 2016
                13 October 2015
                13 October 2015
                : 44
                : Database issue , Database issue
                : D463-D470
                Affiliations
                [1 ]San Diego Supercomputer Center, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
                [2 ]University of Michigan, 6300 Brehm Tower, 1000 Wall Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA
                [3 ]University of Florida, 2250 Shealy Drive, Gainesville, FL 32608, USA
                [4 ]University of California, Davis, 451 Health Sciences Dr, Davis, CA 95616, USA
                [5 ]University of Kentucky, 789 S. Limestone, 521 Biopharm Bldg, Lexington, KY 40536, USA
                [6 ]Mayo Clinic, 200 First street SW, Rochester, MN 55902, USA
                [7 ]RTI International, 3040 Cornwallis Rd, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
                [8 ]Departments of Bioengineering, Computer Science and Engineering, Cellular and Molecular Medicine, and Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
                Author notes
                [* ]To whom correspondence should be addressed. Tel: +1 858 822 0986; Fax: +1 858 822 3752; Email: shankar@ 123456ucsd.edu
                []The authors wish it to be known that, in their opinion, the first three authors should be regarded as joint First Authors.
                Article
                10.1093/nar/gkv1042
                4702780
                26467476
                f7cd411d-acb3-4aa6-ae5f-79c2374d96e4
                © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Pages: 8
                Product
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                Database Issue
                Custom metadata
                04 January 2016

                Genetics

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