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# Clinical classification in mental health at the cross-roads: which direction next?

BMC Medicine

BioMed Central

Classification, Clinical staging, Mental health

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### Abstract

##### Background

After 30 years of consensus-derived diagnostic categories in mental health, it is time to head in new directions. Those categories placed great emphasis on enhanced reliability and the capacity to identify them via standardized checklists. Although this enhanced epidemiology and health services planning, it failed to link broad diagnostic groupings to underlying pathophysiology or specific treatment response.

##### Discussion

It is time to adopt new goals that prioritize the validation of clinical entities and foster alternative strategies to support those goals. The value of new dimensions (notably clinical staging), that are both clinically relevant and directly related to emerging developmental and neurobiological research, is proposed. A strong emphasis on ‘reverse translation’ (that is, working back from the clinic to the laboratory) underpins these novel approaches. However, it relies on using diagnostic groupings that already have strong evidence of links to specific risk factors or patterns of treatment response.

##### Summary

The strategies described abandon the historical divides between clinical neurology, psychiatry and psychology and adopt the promotion of pathways to illness models.

### Most cited references144

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### Prior juvenile diagnoses in adults with mental disorder: developmental follow-back of a prospective-longitudinal cohort.

(2003)
If most adults with mental disorders are found to have a juvenile psychiatric history, this would shift etiologic research and prevention policy to focus more on childhood mental disorders. Our prospective longitudinal study followed up a representative birth cohort (N = 1037). We made psychiatric diagnoses according to DSM criteria at 11, 13, 15, 18, 21, and 26 years of age. Adult disorders were defined in the following 3 ways: (1) cases diagnosed using a standardized diagnostic interview, (2) the subset using treatment, and (3) the subset receiving intensive mental health services. Follow-back analyses ascertained the proportion of adult cases who had juvenile diagnoses and the types of juvenile diagnoses they had. Among adult cases defined via the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, 73.9% had received a diagnosis before 18 years of age and 50.0% before 15 years of age. Among treatment-using cases, 76.5% received a diagnosis before 18 years of age and 57.5% before 15 years of age. Among cases receiving intensive mental health services, 77.9% received a diagnosis before 18 years of age and 60.3% before 15 years of age. Adult disorders were generally preceded by their juvenile counterparts (eg, adult anxiety was preceded by juvenile anxiety), but also by different disorders. Specifically, adult anxiety and schizophreniform disorders were preceded by a broad array of juvenile disorders. For all adult disorders, 25% to 60% of cases had a history of conduct and/or oppositional defiant disorder. Most adult disorders should be reframed as extensions of juvenile disorders. In particular, juvenile conduct disorder is a priority prevention target for reducing psychiatric disorder in the adult population.
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### Rethinking schizophrenia.

(2010)
How will we view schizophrenia in 2030? Schizophrenia today is a chronic, frequently disabling mental disorder that affects about one per cent of the world's population. After a century of studying schizophrenia, the cause of the disorder remains unknown. Treatments, especially pharmacological treatments, have been in wide use for nearly half a century, yet there is little evidence that these treatments have substantially improved outcomes for most people with schizophrenia. These current unsatisfactory outcomes may change as we approach schizophrenia as a neurodevelopmental disorder with psychosis as a late, potentially preventable stage of the illness. This 'rethinking' of schizophrenia as a neurodevelopmental disorder, which is profoundly different from the way we have seen this illness for the past century, yields new hope for prevention and cure over the next two decades.
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### Five-hundred life-saving interventions and their cost-effectiveness.

(1995)
We gathered information on the cost-effectiveness of life-saving interventions in the United States from publicly available economic analyses. "Life-saving interventions" were defined as any behavioral and/or technological strategy that reduces the probability of premature death among a specified target population. We defined cost-effectiveness as the net resource costs of an intervention per year of life saved. To improve the comparability of cost-effectiveness ratios arrived at with diverse methods, we established fixed definitional goals and revised published estimates, when necessary and feasible, to meet these goals. The 587 interventions identified ranged from those that save more resources than they cost, to those costing more than 10 billion dollars per year of life saved. Overall, the median intervention costs $42,000 per life-year saved. The median medical intervention cost$19,000/life-year; injury reduction $48,000/life-year; and toxin control$2,800,000/life-year. Cost/life-year ratios and bibliographic references for more than 500 life-saving interventions are provided.
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### Author and article information

###### Journal
BMC Med
BMC Med
BMC Medicine
BioMed Central
1741-7015
2013
14 May 2013
: 11
: 125
###### Affiliations
[1 ]Clinical Research Unit, Brain & Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, 100 Mallett Street, Camperdown, 2050, Australia
[2 ]Academic Psychiatry, Institute of Neuroscience, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, UK
[3 ]FondaMental Foundation, Fondation de Coopération Scientifique Hôpital A. Chenevier, 40 Rue de Mesly, Creteil, F-94000, France
[4 ]INSERM, U 955, IMRB, Psychiatry Genetic, Creteil, F-94000, France
[5 ]School of Medicine, The University of Notre Dame, 160 Oxford Street, Darlinghurst, Sydney, 2010, Australia
[6 ]Centre for Youth Mental Health, University of Melbourne, 35 Poplar Road, Parkville, 3052, Australia
[7 ]Orygen Youth Health Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Melbourne, 35 Poplar Road, Parkville, 3052, Australia
###### Article
1741-7015-11-125
10.1186/1741-7015-11-125
3653738
23672522
Copyright ©2013 Hickie et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

###### Categories
Debate

Medicine

clinical staging, classification, mental health