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      Anti-Biofouling and Healable Materials: Preparation, Mechanisms, and Biomedical Applications

      1 , 1 , 2
      Advanced Functional Materials
      Wiley

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          Most cited references103

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          Autonomic healing of polymer composites.

          Structural polymers are susceptible to damage in the form of cracks, which form deep within the structure where detection is difficult and repair is almost impossible. Cracking leads to mechanical degradation of fibre-reinforced polymer composites; in microelectronic polymeric components it can also lead to electrical failure. Microcracking induced by thermal and mechanical fatigue is also a long-standing problem in polymer adhesives. Regardless of the application, once cracks have formed within polymeric materials, the integrity of the structure is significantly compromised. Experiments exploring the concept of self-repair have been previously reported, but the only successful crack-healing methods that have been reported so far require some form of manual intervention. Here we report a structural polymeric material with the ability to autonomically heal cracks. The material incorporates a microencapsulated healing agent that is released upon crack intrusion. Polymerization of the healing agent is then triggered by contact with an embedded catalyst, bonding the crack faces. Our fracture experiments yield as much as 75% recovery in toughness, and we expect that our approach will be applicable to other brittle materials systems (including ceramics and glasses).
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            Antifouling coatings: recent developments in the design of surfaces that prevent fouling by proteins, bacteria, and marine organisms.

            The major strategies for designing surfaces that prevent fouling due to proteins, bacteria, and marine organisms are reviewed. Biofouling is of great concern in numerous applications ranging from biosensors to biomedical implants and devices, and from food packaging to industrial and marine equipment. The two major approaches to combat surface fouling are based on either preventing biofoulants from attaching or degrading them. One of the key strategies for imparting adhesion resistance involves the functionalization of surfaces with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) or oligo(ethylene glycol). Several alternatives to PEG-based coatings have also been designed over the past decade. While protein-resistant coatings may also resist bacterial attachment and subsequent biofilm formation, in order to overcome the fouling-mediated risk of bacterial infection it is highly desirable to design coatings that are bactericidal. Traditional techniques involve the design of coatings that release biocidal agents, including antibiotics, quaternary ammonium salts (QAS), and silver, into the surrounding aqueous environment. However, the emergence of antibiotic- and silver-resistant pathogenic strains has necessitated the development of alternative strategies. Therefore, other techniques based on the use of polycations, enzymes, nanomaterials, and photoactive agents are being investigated. With regard to marine antifouling coatings, restrictions on the use of biocide-releasing coatings have made the generation of nontoxic antifouling surfaces more important. While considerable progress has been made in the design of antifouling coatings, ongoing research in this area should result in the development of even better antifouling materials in the future. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
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              Silver as antibacterial agent: ion, nanoparticle, and metal.

              The antibacterial action of silver is utilized in numerous consumer products and medical devices. Metallic silver, silver salts, and also silver nanoparticles are used for this purpose. The state of research on the effect of silver on bacteria, cells, and higher organisms is summarized. It can be concluded that the therapeutic window for silver is narrower than often assumed. However, the risks for humans and the environment are probably limited. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Advanced Functional Materials
                Adv. Funct. Mater.
                Wiley
                1616301X
                October 2018
                October 2018
                August 16 2018
                : 28
                : 41
                : 1800596
                Affiliations
                [1 ]College of Chemistry; Research Center for Analytical Sciences; State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology; Tianjin Key Laboratory of Molecular Recognition and Biosensing; Nankai University; Tianjin 300071 China
                [2 ]Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin); Tianjin 300071 China
                Article
                10.1002/adfm.201800596
                f7d08e92-5e35-4066-83c0-1954071076b3
                © 2018

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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