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      Histone Lysine Methyltransferase SETD2 Regulates Coronary Vascular Development in Embryonic Mouse Hearts

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          Congenital heart defects are the most common birth defect and have a clear genetic component, yet genomic structural variations or gene mutations account for only a third of the cases. Epigenomic dynamics during human heart organogenesis thus may play a critical role in regulating heart development. However, it is unclear how histone mark H3K36me3 acts on heart development. Here we report that histone-lysine N-methyltransferase SETD2, an H3K36me3 methyltransferase, is a crucial regulator of the mouse heart epigenome. Setd2 is highly expressed in embryonic stages and accounts for a predominate role of H3K36me3 in the heart. Loss of Setd2 in cardiac progenitors results in obvious coronary vascular defects and ventricular non-compaction, leading to fetus lethality in mid-gestation, without affecting peripheral blood vessel, yolk sac, and placenta formation. Furthermore, deletion of Setd2 dramatically decreased H3K36me3 level and impacted the transcriptional landscape of key cardiac-related genes, including Rspo3 and Flrt2. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that SETD2 plays a primary role in H3K36me3 and is critical for coronary vascular formation and heart development in mice.

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          Most cited references 58

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          Transient regenerative potential of the neonatal mouse heart.

          Certain fish and amphibians retain a robust capacity for cardiac regeneration throughout life, but the same is not true of the adult mammalian heart. Whether the capacity for cardiac regeneration is absent in mammals or whether it exists and is switched off early after birth has been unclear. We found that the hearts of 1-day-old neonatal mice can regenerate after partial surgical resection, but this capacity is lost by 7 days of age. This regenerative response in 1-day-old mice was characterized by cardiomyocyte proliferation with minimal hypertrophy or fibrosis, thereby distinguishing it from repair processes. Genetic fate mapping indicated that the majority of cardiomyocytes within the regenerated tissue originated from preexisting cardiomyocytes. Echocardiography performed 2 months after surgery revealed that the regenerated ventricular apex had normal systolic function. Thus, for a brief period after birth, the mammalian heart appears to have the capacity to regenerate.
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            Coronary arteries form by developmental reprogramming of venous cells.

            Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Determining the coronary artery developmental program could aid understanding of the disease and lead to new treatments, but many aspects of the process, including their developmental origin, remain obscure. Here we show, using histological and clonal analysis in mice and cardiac organ culture, that coronary vessels arise from angiogenic sprouts of the sinus venosus-the vein that returns blood to the embryonic heart. Sprouting venous endothelial cells dedifferentiate as they migrate over and invade the myocardium. Invading cells differentiate into arteries and capillaries; cells on the surface redifferentiate into veins. These results show that some differentiated venous cells retain developmental plasticity, and indicate that position-specific cardiac signals trigger their dedifferentiation and conversion into coronary arteries, capillaries and veins. Understanding this new reprogramming process and identifying the endogenous signals should suggest more natural ways of engineering coronary bypass grafts and revascularizing the heart.
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              Haploinsufficiency of NSD1 causes Sotos syndrome.

              We isolated NSD1 from the 5q35 breakpoint in an individual with Sotos syndrome harboring a chromosomal translocation. We identified 1 nonsense, 3 frameshift and 20 submicroscopic deletion mutations of NSD1 among 42 individuals with sporadic cases of Sotos syndrome. The results indicate that haploinsufficiency of NSD1 is the major cause of Sotos syndrome.

                Author and article information

                Front Cell Dev Biol
                Front Cell Dev Biol
                Front. Cell Dev. Biol.
                Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                09 April 2021
                09 April 2021
                : 9
                1Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Peking University Shenzhen Hospital, State Key Laboratory of Chemical Oncogenomics, School of Chemical Biology and Biotechnology, Peking University Shenzhen Graduate School , Shenzhen, China
                2Department of Medicine, University of California , San Diego, La Jolla, CA, United States
                3Department of Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, Shenzhen University , Shenzhen, China
                4State Key Laboratory of Oncogenes and Related Genes, Renji-Med X Clinical Stem Cell Research Center, Ren Ji Hospital, School of Medicine and Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University , Shanghai, China
                5School of Biomedical Engineering and Med-X Research Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University , Shanghai, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Louis Lefebvre, University of British Columbia, Canada

                Reviewed by: Deqiang Li, University of Maryland, Baltimore, United States; Courtney W. Hanna, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom

                *Correspondence: Li Li, lil@ 123456sjtu.edu.cn

                This article was submitted to Developmental Epigenetics, a section of the journal Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology

                Copyright © 2021 Chen, Chen, Wang, Tang, Huang, Wang, Wang, Fang, Liu, Li, Ouyang and Han.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 58, Pages: 12, Words: 0
                Cell and Developmental Biology
                Original Research


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