Background: The incidence and mortality of hip fractures were several times greater in the patients with hemodialysis (HD) than in the general population. Although patients with end-stage renal disease develop renal osteodystrophy, few published data examined the risk factor of hip fractures in the dialysis population. Methods: The present study was performed to compare various indices and bone mineral density (BMD) of HD patients with or without the history of hip fractures. Moreover, we analyzed the factors which predicted hip fractures in 183 patients with chronic HD enrolled in the cross-sectional study. Results: Serum level of alkaline phosphatase was significantly higher in HD patients with hip fractures, compared to those without hip fractures. Oral calcium carbonate dose was significantly lower in HD patients with hip fractures. 1/3 radius (R)-BMD and ultradistal (UD)R-BMD were significantly lower in HD patients with hip fractures. However, lumbar spine (LS)-BMD was comparable in HD patients with or without hip fractures. Although there was no significant differences of BMD between with and without hip fractures in diabetes mellitus, UDR-BMD of patients with hip fractures was significantly lower than that of patients without hip fractures in chronic glomerulonephritis. Radial BMD was lower in female patients with hip fractures, compared to without hip fractures, although there were no significant differences in male patients. In multiple logistic regression analysis, oral calcitriol dose and 1/3R-BMD were selected as a risk factor of hip fractures in HD patients. Conclusion: Radial BMD was lower in HD patients with hip fractures. However, its contribution is different, depending on gender and the original disease leading to HD. Radial BMD and oral calcitriol dose seemed to be important to predict the risk of hip fractures.