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      Social Inequities in Urban Heat and Greenspace: Analyzing Climate Justice in Delhi, India

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          Abstract

          Climate change and rapid urbanization currently pose major challenges for equitable development in megacities of the Global South, such as Delhi, India. This study considers how urban social inequities are distributed in terms of burdens and benefits by quantifying exposure through an urban heat risk index (UHRI), and proximity to greenspace through the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), at the ward level in Delhi. Landsat derived remote sensing imagery for May and September 2011 is used in a sensitivity analysis of varying seasonal exposure. Multivariable models based on generalized estimating equations (GEEs) reveal significant statistical associations ( p < 0.05) between UHRI/NDVI and several indicators of social vulnerability. For example, the proportions of children (β = 0.922, p = 0.024) and agricultural workers (β = 0.394, p = 0.016) are positively associated with the May UHRI, while the proportions of households with assets (β = −1.978, p = 0.017) and households with electricity (β = −0.605, p = 0.010) are negatively associated with the May UHRI. In contrast, the proportions of children (β = 0.001, p = 0.633) and agricultural workers (β = 0.002, p = 0.356) are not significantly associated with the May NDVI, while the proportions of households with assets (β = 0.013, p = 0.010) and those with electricity (β = 0.008, p = 0.006) are positively associated with the May NDVI. Our findings emphasize the need for future research and policies to consider how socially vulnerable groups are inequitably exposed to the impact of climate change-related urban heat without the mitigating effects of greenspace.

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          Longitudinal data analysis using generalized linear models

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                ijerph
                International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
                MDPI
                1661-7827
                1660-4601
                30 April 2021
                May 2021
                : 18
                : 9
                Affiliations
                [1 ]National Community Reinvestment Coalition (NCRC), Washington, DC 20005, USA; bmitchell@ 123456ncrc.org
                [2 ]Department of Sociology & Anthropology, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968, USA; pbasu@ 123456utep.edu
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: jchakraborty@ 123456utep.edu ; Tel.: +1-915-747-6577
                Article
                ijerph-18-04800
                10.3390/ijerph18094800
                8124940
                33946259
                f7e3372f-c56c-4ab1-9dd1-b900050dc83e
                © 2021 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Article

                Public health
                environmental justice,climate justice,urban studies,urban heat island,greenspace,remote sensing

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