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      Optical dynamics of excitons in J aggregates of a carbocyanine dye

      , , ,

      The Journal of Chemical Physics

      AIP Publishing

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          Most cited references 39

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          Relationship between Absorption Intensity and Fluorescence Lifetime of Molecules

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            Spectral Absorption and Fluorescence of Dyes in the Molecular State

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              J-aggregate formation of a carbocyanine as a quantitative fluorescent indicator of membrane potential.

               M Reers,  L. Chen,  Ryan Smith (1991)
              The spectral properties of a novel membrane potential sensitive probe (JC-1) were characterized in aqueous buffers and in isolated cardiac mitochondria. JC-1 is a carbocyanine with a delocalized positive charge. It formed under favorable conditions a concentration-dependent fluorescent nematic phase consisting of J-aggregates. When excited at 490 nm, the monomers exhibited an emission maximum at 527 nm and J-aggregates at 590 nm. Increasing concentrations of JC-1 above a certain concentration caused a linear rise in the J-aggregate fluorescence, while the monomer fluorescence remained constant. The membrane potential of energized mitochondria (negative inside) promoted a directional uptake of JC-1 into the matrix, also with subsequent formation of J-aggregates. The J-aggregate fluorescence was sensitive to transient membrane potential changes induced by ADP and to metabolic inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation. The J-aggregate fluorescence was found to be pH independent within the physiological pH range of 7.15-8.0 and could be linearly calibrated with valinomycin-induced K+ diffusion potentials. The advantage of JC-1 over rhodamines and other carbocyanines is that its color altered reversibly from green to red with increasing membrane potentials. This can be exploited for imaging live mitochondria on the stage of a microscope.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                The Journal of Chemical Physics
                The Journal of Chemical Physics
                AIP Publishing
                0021-9606
                1089-7690
                April 22 1995
                April 22 1995
                : 102
                : 16
                : 6362-6370
                Article
                10.1063/1.1703017
                © 1995
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