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      Renal Stone Disease: The Urological Perspective

      a , b

      Nephron Clinical Practice

      S. Karger AG

      Lithotripsy, Urology, Surgery, Renal stones

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          Abstract

          Percutaneous nephrolithotomy, extracorporeal lithotripsy and ureteroscopy have changed the face of urolithiasis. Open surgery is becoming extremely rare today. Nevertheless, the cooperation between nephrologist and urologist remains essential and is the only way to prevent recurrence.

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          Most cited references 9

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          Recurrent renal stone disease-advances in pathogenesis and clinical management.

          Kidney stones are common in industrialised nations: up to 15% of white men and 6% of all women will develop one stone, with recurrence in about half these people. Risk factors for formation of stones include urinary promoters (calcium, urate, cystine, and sodium) and urinary inhibitors (magnesium, citrate, and nephrocalcin). Acute renal colic can be precipitated by dehydration and reduced urine output, increased protein intake, heavy physical exercise, and various medicines. Such colic manifests as severe loin pain and can be accompanied by frequent urination, dysuria, oliguria, and haematuria. Documentation of stone characteristics is extremely important: type, size, location, and underlying metabolic abnormalities. Such details can be obtained with a combination of biochemical investigations, microscopic examination of urine under polarised light, and an intravenous pyelogram. Ultrasonography and plain abdominal radiographs are also useful, especially for patients unable to tolerate an intravenous pyelogram. Acute therapy includes complete pain relief, rehydration, and encouragement of diuresis. Long-term management encompasses education of patients with regard to diet and fluid intake, control of calciuria, citrate replacement, and treatment of any underlying urinary-tract infection or metabolic abnormality. Stones smaller than 5 mm normally pass spontaneously, whereas larger stones, as big as 2 cm, are best treated with extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy. All physicians should have a clear understanding of the pathogenesis and clinical management (acute treatment and prevention of recurrence) of renal stone disease.
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            Flexible ureteroscopes: a single center evaluation of the durability and function of the new endoscopes smaller than 9Fr.

            Flexible ureteroscopes smaller than 9Fr are widely used in endourology. We systematically evaluated the functional durability of these instruments in the clinical setting. We performed ureteronephroscopy 92 consecutive times in 84 patients at our hospital using a flexible Storz model 11274AA,double dagger Circon-ACMI model AUR-7, section sign Wolf model 7325.172 parallel and Olympus model URF/P3 ureteroscope paragraph sign. Preoperatively and postoperatively we evaluated all flexible ureteroscopes for luminosity, irrigant flow at 100 mm. Hg, number of broken image fibers and active deflection range. During the procedure a record was kept of the duration that the endoscope remained in the urinary tract, average irrigation pressure, method of insertion, various devices used within the working channel, need for lower pole access, and surgeon overall impression of visibility and maneuverability. The luminosity and irrigant flow of all endoscopes remained relatively unchanged during consecutive applications, while active deflection deteriorated 2% to 28%. Endoscopes were used for an average of 3 to 13 hours before they needed repair. The most fragile part of these instruments was the deflection unit. Small diameter flexible ureteroscopes are effective for diagnosing and treating upper urinary tract pathology but improved durability is required. Currently they represent a highly effective but high maintenance means of achieving retrograde access to the ureter and kidney with a need for repair after only 6 to 15 uses.
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              Guidelines on Urolithiasis1

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEC
                Nephron Clin Pract
                10.1159/issn.1660-2110
                Nephron Clinical Practice
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-8055-7852-3
                978-3-318-06156-7
                1660-2110
                2004
                October 2004
                17 November 2004
                : 98
                : 2
                : c54-c58
                Affiliations
                aFédération d’Urologie-Nephrologie et Transplantation, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire Nice, Nice, France; bInstitute of Urology and Nephrology, University College London, London, UK
                Article
                80253 Nephron Clin Pract 2004;98:c54–c58
                10.1159/000080253
                15499204
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 1, References: 14, Pages: 1
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/80253
                Categories
                Paper

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Renal stones, Urology, Surgery, Lithotripsy

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