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      Relaxant Effect of Monoterpene (−)-Carveol on Isolated Human Umbilical Cord Arteries and the Involvement of Ion Channels

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          Abstract

          Carveol is a monoterpene present in the structure of many plant products. It has a variety of biological activities: antioxidant, anticancer and vasorelaxation. However, studies investigating the effect of monoterpenoids on human vessels have not yet been described. Thus, the present study aimed to characterize the effect of (−)-carveol on human umbilical arteries (HUAs). HUA ring preparations were isolated and subjected to isometric tension recordings of umbilical artery smooth muscle contractions. (−)-Carveol exhibited a significant vasorelaxant effect on KCl and 5-HT-induced contractions, obtaining EC 50 values of 344.25 ± 8.4 and 175.82 ± 4.05 µM, respectively. The participation of calcium channels in the relaxation produced by (−)-carveol was analyzed using vessels pre-incubated with (−)-carveol (2000 µM) in a calcium-free medium, where the induction of contractions was abolished. The vasorelaxant effect of (−)-carveol on HUAs was reduced by tetraethylammonium (TEA), which increased the (−)-carveol EC 50 to 484.87 ± 6.55 µM. The present study revealed that (−)-carveol possesses a vasorelaxant activity in HUAs, which was dependent on the opening of calcium and potassium channels. These results pave the way for further studies involving the use of monoterpenoids for the vasodilatation of HUAs. These molecules have the potential to treat diseases such as pre-eclampsia, which is characterized by resistance in umbilical arteries.

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          Most cited references 44

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          Physiological roles and properties of potassium channels in arterial smooth muscle.

          This review examines the properties and roles of the four types of K+ channels that have been identified in the cell membrane of arterial smooth muscle cells. 1) Voltage-dependent K+ (KV) channels increase their activity with membrane depolarization and are important regulators of smooth muscle membrane potential in response to depolarizing stimuli. 2) Ca(2+)-activated K+ (KCa) channels respond to changes in intracellular Ca2+ to regulate membrane potential and play an important role in the control of myogenic tone in small arteries. 3) Inward rectifier K+ (KIR) channels regulate membrane potential in smooth muscle cells from several types of resistance arteries and may be responsible for external K(+)-induced dilations. 4) ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels respond to changes in cellular metabolism and are targets of a variety of vasodilating stimuli. The main conclusions of this review are: 1) regulation of arterial smooth muscle membrane potential through activation or inhibition of K+ channel activity provides an important mechanism to dilate or constrict arteries; 2) KV, KCa, KIR, and KATP channels serve unique functions in the regulation of arterial smooth muscle membrane potential; and 3) K+ channels integrate a variety of vasoactive signals to dilate or constrict arteries through regulation of the membrane potential in arterial smooth muscle.
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            Antibacterial Activity of Terpenes and Terpenoids Present in Essential Oils

            Background: The antimicrobial activity of essential oils has been reported in hundreds of studies, however, the great majority of these studies attribute the activity to the most prevalent compounds without analyzing them independently. Therefore, the aim was to investigate the antibacterial activity of 33 free terpenes commonly found in essential oils and evaluate the cellular ultrastructure to verify possible damage to the cellular membrane. Methods: Screening was performed to select substances with possible antimicrobial activity, then the minimal inhibitory concentrations, bactericidal activity and 24-h time-kill curve studies were evaluated by standard protocols. In addition, the ultrastructure of control and death bacteria were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. Results: Only 16 of the 33 compounds had antimicrobial activity at the initial screening. Eugenol exhibited rapid bactericidal action against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (2 h). Terpineol showed excellent bactericidal activity against S. aureus strains. Carveol, citronellol and geraniol presented a rapid bactericidal effect against E. coli. Conclusions: The higher antimicrobial activity was related to the presence of hydroxyl groups (phenolic and alcohol compounds), whereas hydrocarbons resulted in less activity. The first group, such as carvacrol, l-carveol, eugenol, trans-geraniol, and thymol, showed higher activity when compared to sulfanilamide. Images obtained by scanning electron microscopy indicate that the mechanism causing the cell death of the evaluated bacteria is based on the loss of cellular membrane integrity of function. The present study brings detailed knowledge about the antimicrobial activity of the individual compounds present in essential oils, that can provide a greater understanding for the future researches.
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              Mechanisms of smooth muscle contraction.

              Work performed with differentiated contractile smooth muscle tissue over the last two decades has made clear that covalent modification of myosin by phosphorylation of the 20-kDa myosin light chains is a significant mode of regulation of contractile activity in smooth muscle, particularly in regard to the generation of phasic contractions and the initial development of tonic contractions. This regulatory mechanism appears to be of unique importance in smooth muscle compared with striated muscle. It is equally clear, however, that there is an important role for protein kinase C in the regulation of smooth muscle tone maintenance, particularly in vascular smooth muscle. Several possible signal transduction cascades involving protein kinase C are outlined. Increasing evidence suggests a link between protein kinase C and actin-based regulatory mechanisms. This review places emphasis on relating up-to-date biochemical facts to the physiological realities of the smooth muscle cell.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Molecules
                Molecules
                molecules
                Molecules
                MDPI
                1420-3049
                09 June 2020
                June 2020
                : 25
                : 11
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Biological Chemistry, Regional University of Cariri, Crato 63105-000, CE, Brazil; renata_ers@ 123456hotmail.com (R.E.R.d.S.); nayanealmeida1@ 123456gmail.com (N.d.S.A.); martaluiz@ 123456yahoo.com.br (M.R.K.); irwinalencar@ 123456yahoo.com.br (I.R.A.d.M.); hdmcoutinho@ 123456gmail.com (H.D.M.C.); roselibarbo@ 123456gmail.com (R.B.)
                [2 ]PhD student Graduate Program in Physiological Sciences, Higher Institute of Biomedical Sciences State University of Ceará–UECE, Fortaleza 60714-903, CE, Brazil; andressaalencar17@ 123456hotmail.com
                [3 ]PhD student in Biotechnology by the Northeastern Biotechnology Network - RENORBIO, State University of Ceará-UECE, Fortaleza 60714-903, CE, Brazil; luispereira256@ 123456gmail.com
                [4 ]Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Milan State University, via G. Celoria 2, 20133 Milan, Italy
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: marcello.iriti@ 123456unimi.it ; Tel.: +390-250316766
                Article
                molecules-25-02681
                10.3390/molecules25112681
                7321233
                32527034
                f7ee89ac-f0e3-422a-b5bf-9dfed7e32c09
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Article

                carveol, human umbilical artery, vasorelaxant

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