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      Analysis of the reproductive stage and ovarian histomorphometry of Dermanura cinerea (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) in an Atlantic Forest fragment of Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil Translated title: Análise do estágio reprodutivo e histomorfometria ovariana de Dermanura cinerea (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) em um fragmento de Mata Atlântica de Pernambuco, Nordeste do Brasil

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          Abstract

          ABSTRACT: This study aimed to analyze the reproductive stage, histology and morphometry of the ovary of Dermanura cinerea in an Atlantic Forest fragments in the Biological Reserve of Saltinho, Pernambuco, Brazil. Adult females were captured monthly by mist net, during two consecutive nights from June/2014 to November/2015. The meteorological data were provided by the National Institute of Meteorology and grouped together with the reproductive data, in six periods: period I (June to August/2014), period II (September to November/2014), period III (December/2014 to February/2015), period IV (March to May/2015), period V (June to August/2015) and period VI (September to November/2015). The females were classified according to their reproductive stages in: Inactive, pregnant, lactating and postlactating. Among the 25 females caught, 10 inactive females were selected for the histomorphometric analysis of the ovaries and then they were euthanized. After that, the specimens had their ovaries removed, fixed, processed and included in Paraplast. The organs were cut and stained by Hematoxylin - Eosin and the histological slides produced were submitted to the appropriate optical microscope analysis. Each type of ovarian follicle was estimated according to the histological characteristics evidenced for other mammals. In the morphometric analysis, it was considered: The area of the ovary (measured in square millimeter), Quantification of different types of ovarian follicles (unilaminar and multilaminar primary follicles, antral and matures) and corpus luteum, as well as the area of each by those different follicles (measured in square micrometer) The results indicated that 16 females were inactive, 5 were lactating, 4 were pregnant and no post-lactating. The histological analysis revealed that the ovaries of D. cinerea exhibit characteristics, structures and cellular types similar to other mammals. The morphometric data of the study area were statistically evaluated using the Student’s t-test. Therefore, ovarian histomorphometric analysis are very important to infer with greater certainty about the reproduction of a species. Thus, it was observed that females of D. cinerea exhibit two reproductive peaks, that is, they can give birth either at the end of dry periods or from the beginning to the middle of the rainy season. The main feature observed in the ovary of this species, found in the Atlantic Forest area of the state of Pernambuco, is the preparation of the ovarian cortex to ovulate in months of high rainfall throughout the year. Therefore, this species tries to adjust its reproductive period with the variations of the environmental conditions, so that the reproduction might occur during the period more favorable for the maintenance of their offspring.

          Translated abstract

          RESUMO: Esse estudo objetivou analisar o estágio reprodutivo, histologia e morfometria do ovário de Dermanura cinerea em um fragmento de Mata Atlântica da Reserva Biológica de Saltinho (Pernambuco, Brasil). Foram utilizadas fêmeas adultas capturadas por redes de neblina, de modo que as coletas ocorreram mensalmente, durante duas noites consecutivas de Junho/2014 a Novembro/2015. Os dados meteorológicos foram fornecidos pelo Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia e agrupados, juntamente com os dados reprodutivos, em seis períodos, sendo estes: período I (Junho a agosto/2014), período II (Setembro a novembro/2014), período III (Dezembro/2014 a fevereiro/2015) período IV (Março a maio/2015), período V (Junho a agosto/2015) e período VI (Setembro a novembro/2015). As fêmeas foram classificadas, de acordo com o estágio reprodutivo em: inativas, grávidas, lactantes e pós-lactantes. Das 25 fêmeas capturadas, foram selecionadas, para as análises histomorfométricas dos ovários, 10 fêmeas inativas, as quais foram eutanasiadas. Depois disso, os espécimes tiveram os seus ovários removidos, fixados, processados e inclusos em paraplast. Os cortes foram corados por Hematoxilina - Eosina e as lâminas histológicas produzidas foram submetidas às devidas análises em microscópio óptico. Cada tipo de folículo ovariano foi estimado de acordo com as características histológicas evidenciadas para outros mamíferos. Nas análises morfométricas, considerou-se: a área do ovário (mensurada em milímetro quadrado), quantificação dos diferentes tipos de folículos ovarianos (primários unilaminar e multilaminar, antrais e maduros) e corpo lúteo, bem como foi medida a área de cada um desses diferentes tipos de folículos (mensurada em micrômetro quadrado). Os resultados indicaram a presença de 16 fêmeas inativas, 5 lactantes, 4 grávidas e nenhuma pós-lactante. As análises histológicas destacaram que os ovários de D. cinerea possui características, estruturas e tipos celulares padrões semelhantes ao dos demais mamíferos. Os dados morfométricos da área do ovário foram avaliados estatisticamente por meio do teste t de Student. Assim, as análises histomorfométricas ovariana são de suma importância para inferir com maior segurança sobre a reprodução de uma dada espécie. Portanto, ficou constatado que as fêmeas de D. cinerea apresentam dois picos reprodutivos, isto é, podem parir no final de períodos secos ou do início para metade do período chuvoso. A principal característica observada no ovário dessa espécie, encontrada em área de Mata Atlântica do estado de Pernambuco, foi a preparação do córtex ovariano para ovular em meses de elevados índices pluviométricos ao longo do ano. Logo, essa espécie procura ajustar seu período reprodutivo com as variações das condições ambientais, de forma que a reprodução ocorra em períodos mais favoráveis para manutenção da prole.

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          Most cited references 54

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          Reproductive patterns and feeding habits of three nectarivorous bats (Phyllostomidae: Glossophaginae) from the Brazilian Cerrado.

           M Zortea (2003)
          The reproductive patterns and feeding habits of three sympatric nectarivorous bats, Glossophaga soricina, Anoura caudifera, and A. geoffroyi were studied in the Pousada das Araras Natural Reserve, located in Central Brazil. The bats were captured with mist nets from August 2000 to July 2001. Reproductive condition was determined by external analyses of the specimens and feeding habits from fecal samples. Glossophaga soricina was the most abundant species (65%), followed by A. geoffroyi (30%) and A. caudifera (5%). Significant differences were observed in the sex-ratio of the two more abundant species. Anoura geoffroyi showed a monoestrous pattern; its reproductive peaks occurred between the end of the dry season and the beginning of the rain season. A seasonal bimodal pattern was recorded for G. soricina, with pregnant specimens showing one peak observed in the dry season and another in the middle of the rainy season. The reproductive pattern of A. caudifera could not be satisfactorily defined because of the small sample size. However, this species apparently has a reproductive cycle similar to that of G. soricina. The patterns observed in this study seem to be related with the climate in the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado), with two well-defined seasons (dry and wet). By adjusting the parturition close to or in the rain season the three species could be favoring a greates survival rate for the offspring, since the critical lactation period would then occur in a time of maximum food availability. The three bat species showed a generalist diet, consuming fruits, pollennectar, and arthropods. Significant differences were observed in the diet of G. soricina: fruits and arthropods predominated in the dry season and pulp (fruits) in the rainy season. Males and females of this species ate the same items in similar proportions. Although A. geoffroyi has not showed a preference for a specific item, consumption of fruits and arthropods was generally greater than that of pollen.
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            Species composition and reproductive phenology of bats in a tropical landscape at Los Tuxtlas, Mexico

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              Operational Criteria for Genetically Defined Species: Analysis of the Diversification of the Small Fruit-Eating Bats,Dermanura(Phyllostomidae: Stenodermatinae)

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
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                Role: ND
                Journal
                pvb
                Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira
                Pesq. Vet. Bras.
                Colégio Brasileiro de Patologia Animal - CBPA. Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA) (Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil )
                0100-736X
                1678-5150
                January 2018
                : 38
                : 1
                : 167-174
                Affiliations
                Vitória de Santo Antão orgnameUniversidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco orgdiv1Centro Acadêmico de Vitória Brazil
                Recife Pernambuco orgnameUniversidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco orgdiv1Departamento de Morfologia e Fisiologia Animal orgdiv2Área de Morfologia Brazil
                Article
                S0100-736X2018000100167
                10.1590/1678-5150-pvb-4934

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

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                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 69, Pages: 8
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