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      Validation of virtual reality orbitometry bridges digital and physical worlds

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          Abstract

          Clinical science and medical imaging technology are traditionally displayed in two dimensions (2D) on a computer monitor. In contrast, three-dimensional (3D) virtual reality (VR) expands the realm of 2D image visualization, enabling an immersive VR experience with unhindered spatial interaction by the user. Thus far, analysis of data extracted from VR applications was mainly qualitative. In this study, we enhance VR and provide evidence for quantitative VR research by validating digital VR display of computed tomography (CT) data of the orbit. Volumetric CT data were transferred and rendered into a VR environment. Subsequently, seven graders performed repeated and blinded diameter measurements. The intergrader variability of the measurements in VR was much lower compared to measurements in the physical world and measurements were reasonably consistent with their corresponding elements in the real context. The overall VR measurements were 5.49% higher. As such, this study attests the ability of VR to provide similar quantitative data alongside the added benefit of VR interfaces. VR entails a lot of potential for the future research in ophthalmology and beyond in any scientific field that uses three-dimensional data.

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          Most cited references 35

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          Haptics in minimally invasive surgery--a review.

          This article gives an overview of research performed in the field of haptic information feedback during minimally invasive surgery (MIS). Literature has been consulted from 1985 to present. The studies show that currently, haptic information feedback is rare, but promising, in MIS. Surgeons benefit from additional feedback about force information. When it comes to grasping forces and perceiving slip, little is known about the advantages additional haptic information can give to prevent tissue trauma during manipulation. Improvement of haptic perception through augmented haptic information feedback in MIS might be promising.
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            The Effect of Number of Rating Scale Categories on Levels of Interrater Reliability : A Monte Carlo Investigation

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              Review: primary epithelial malignancies of the lacrimal gland: the 2003 Ramon L. Font lecture.

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                peter.maloca@iob.ch
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                16 July 2020
                16 July 2020
                2020
                : 10
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Institute of Molecular and Clinical Ophthalmology Basel (IOB), 4031 Basel, Switzerland
                [2 ]GRID grid.410567.1, OCTlab, Department of Ophthalmology, , University Hospital Basel, ; 4031 Basel, Switzerland
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1937 0642, GRID grid.6612.3, Department of Ophthalmology, , University of Basel, ; 4031 Basel, Switzerland
                [4 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9168 0080, GRID grid.436474.6, Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, ; London, EC1V 2PD UK
                [5 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1937 0642, GRID grid.6612.3, Center for Medical Image Analysis & Navigation, , University of Basel, ; 4031 Basel, Switzerland
                [6 ]MRZ Medical Radiology Center, 6004 Lucerne, Switzerland
                [7 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9635 9413, GRID grid.410458.c, Institut Clínic d’Oftalmologia, , Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, ; 08036 Barcelona, Spain
                [8 ]GRID grid.5963.9, Faculty of Medicine, Eye Center, , Albert-Ludwigs University Freiburg, ; 79085 Freiburg, Germany
                [9 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2171 9311, GRID grid.21107.35, Wilmer Eye Institute, , Johns Hopkins University, ; Baltimore, 21287 USA
                Article
                68867
                10.1038/s41598-020-68867-6
                7366721
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                Funding
                Funded by: Siemens Foundation
                Categories
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                © The Author(s) 2020

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                structure determination, software, imaging

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