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      High habitat-specificity in fungal communities in oligo-mesotrophic, temperate Lake Stechlin (North-East Germany)

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          Abstract

          Freshwater fungi are a poorly studied ecological group that includes a high taxonomic diversity. Most studies on aquatic fungal diversity have focused on single habitats, thus the linkage between habitat heterogeneity and fungal diversity remains largely unexplored. We took 216 samples from 54 locations representing eight different habitats in the meso-oligotrophic, temperate Lake Stechlin in North-East Germany. These included the pelagic and littoral water column, sediments, and biotic substrates. We performed high throughput sequencing using the Roche 454 platform, employing a universal eukaryotic marker region within the large ribosomal subunit (LSU) to compare fungal diversity, community structure, and species turnover among habitats. Our analysis recovered 1027 fungal OTUs (97% sequence similarity). Richness estimates were highest in the sediment, biofilms, and benthic samples (189–231 OTUs), intermediate in water samples (42–85 OTUs), and lowest in plankton samples (8 OTUs). NMDS grouped the eight studied habitats into six clusters, indicating that community composition was strongly influenced by turnover among habitats. Fungal communities exhibited changes at the phylum and order levels along three different substrate categories from littoral to pelagic habitats. The large majority of OTUs (> 75%) could not be classified below the order level due to the lack of aquatic fungal entries in public sequence databases. Our study provides a first estimate of lake-wide fungal diversity and highlights the important contribution of habitat heterogeneity to overall diversity and community composition. Habitat diversity should be considered in any sampling strategy aiming to assess the fungal diversity of a water body.

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          Most cited references 63

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          The operated Markov´s chains in economy (discrete chains of Markov with the income)

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            Sequencing of natural strains of Arabidopsis thaliana with short reads.

            Whole-genome hybridization studies have suggested that the nuclear genomes of accessions (natural strains) of Arabidopsis thaliana can differ by several percent of their sequence. To examine this variation, and as a first step in the 1001 Genomes Project for this species, we produced 15- to 25-fold coverage in Illumina sequencing-by-synthesis (SBS) reads for the reference accession, Col-0, and two divergent strains, Bur-0 and Tsu-1. We aligned reads to the reference genome sequence to assess data quality metrics and to detect polymorphisms. Alignments revealed 823,325 unique single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 79,961 unique 1- to 3-bp indels in the divergent accessions at a specificity of >99%, and over 2000 potential errors in the reference genome sequence. We also identified >3.4 Mb of the Bur-0 and Tsu-1 genomes as being either extremely dissimilar, deleted, or duplicated relative to the reference genome. To obtain sequences for these regions, we incorporated the Velvet assembler into a targeted de novo assembly method. This approach yielded 10,921 high-confidence contigs that were anchored to flanking sequences and harbored indels as large as 641 bp. Our methods are broadly applicable for polymorphism discovery in moderate to large genomes even at highly diverged loci, and we established by subsampling the Illumina SBS coverage depth required to inform a broad range of functional and evolutionary studies. Our pipeline for aligning reads and predicting SNPs and indels, SHORE, is available for download at http://1001genomes.org.
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              Habitat coupling in lake ecosystems

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                MycoKeys
                MC
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-4049
                1314-4057
                October 21 2016
                October 21 2016
                : 16
                : 17-44
                Article
                10.3897/mycokeys.16.9646
                © 2016

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