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      Psychometric properties revised reinforcement sensitivity theory (r-RST) scale in chronic pain patients

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          The aim of present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Reinforcement Sensitivity Questionnaire (RSQ) in patients with chronic pain.


          For this purpose, 312 (first study) and 70 (second study) patients with chronic pain were selected, and the Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory Personality Questionnaire (RST-PQ) and Pain Beliefs and Perceptions Inventory (PBPI) were distributed among them for their response. The reliability of the questionnaire was evaluated by Cronbach’s alpha, retest, and split-half coefficient; then, the criterion validity with other questionnaires was evaluated to determine the psychometric properties of the RSQ. The factor structure was assessed via confirmatory factor analysis.


          The results of the factor analysis indicated that the RSQ has five factors, and checking the validity by using Cronbach’s alpha, retest, and split-half coefficient reflected the stability of the scale; the criterion validity of the RSQ with other questionnaires showed desirable discriminant and convergent validity.


          Overall, the findings indicated that the RSQ has good psychometric properties in chronic pain samples, and the tool can be used in studies of chronic pain. It seems that the RSQ is a good predictor for pain in patients with chronic pain.

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          Most cited references 32

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          Theoretical perspectives on the relation between catastrophizing and pain.

          The tendency to "catastrophize" during painful stimulation contributes to more intense pain experience and increased emotional distress. Catastrophizing has been broadly conceived as an exaggerated negative "mental set" brought to bear during painful experiences. Although findings have been consistent in showing a relation between catastrophizing and pain, research in this area has proceeded in the relative absence of a guiding theoretical framework. This article reviews the literature on the relation between catastrophizing and pain and examines the relative strengths and limitations of different theoretical models that could be advanced to account for the pattern of available findings. The article evaluates the explanatory power of a schema activation model, an appraisal model, an attention model, and a communal coping model of pain perception. It is suggested that catastrophizing might best be viewed from the perspective of hierarchical levels of analysis, where social factors and social goals may play a role in the development and maintenance of catastrophizing, whereas appraisal-related processes may point to the mechanisms that link catastrophizing to pain experience. Directions for future research are suggested.
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            Confirmary Factor Analysis for Applied Research

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              Reinforcement sensitivity theory and personality.

               P Corr (2004)
              A fully fledged neuroscience of personality is beginning to emerge, shaped and guided in large measure by the seminal work of Jeffrey A. Gray over a period of 40 years. In this Festschrift, I trace the theoretical development of Gray's approach--now known as Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST)--out of the Eysenckian tradition to its most recent articulation. Experimental attempts to test RST are reviewed and the theoretical problems raised by this literature discussed. Also presented are data relating to a recent clarification of RST, viz. the joint subsystems hypothesis, which postulates a fundamental interdependence of appetitive and aversive systems in the typical human laboratory. The value of Gray's general approach to building behavioural theories on the bases of both the conceptual nervous system and the real nervous system is validated in personality, which has long been thought a philosophical mystery rather than a standard problem to be tackled by scientific method.

                Author and article information

                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove Medical Press
                08 August 2017
                : 10
                : 1879-1885
                [1 ]Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
                [2 ]Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
                [3 ]Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Tehran, Iran
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Sohrab Amiri, Alley, No. 18, Sajjad 3, Agil 12 Yards, Martyr Rajai Street, Hamedan Province, Hamadan City, Iran, Tel +98 91 9792 8021, Fax +98 08 1442 2244, Email Amirysohrab@ 123456yahoo.com
                © 2017 Amiri et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research

                Anesthesiology & Pain management

                reinforcement sensitivity, factor analysis, chronic pain


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