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      Phylogenetically diverse group of native bacterial symbionts isolated from root nodules of groundnut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) in South Africa

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          Groundnut is an economically important N ​2-fixing legume that can contribute about 100–190 kg N ha −1 to cropping systems. In this study, groundnut-nodulating native rhizobia in South African soils were isolated from root nodules. Genetic analysis of isolates was done using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)-PCR of the intergenic spacer (IGS) region of 16S-23S rDNA. A total of 26 IGS types were detected with band sizes ranging from 471 to 1415 bp. The rhizobial isolates were grouped into five main clusters with Jaccard's similarity coefficient of 0.00–1.00, and 35 restriction types in a UPGMA dendrogram. Partial sequence analysis of the 16S rDNA, IGS of 16S rDNA-23S rDNA, atpD, gyrB, gltA, glnII and symbiotic nifH and nodC genes obtained for representative isolates of each RFLP-cluster showed that these native groundnut-nodulating rhizobia were phylogenetically diverse, thus confirming the extent of promiscuity of this legume. Concatenated gene sequence analysis showed that most isolates did not align with known type strains, and may represent new species from South Africa. This underscored the high genetic variability associated with groundnut Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium in South African soils, and the possible presence of a reservoir of novel groundnut-nodulating Bradyrhizobium and Rhizobium in the country.

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          Most cited references 56

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          MUSCLE: multiple sequence alignment with high accuracy and high throughput.

           Robert Edgar (2004)
          We describe MUSCLE, a new computer program for creating multiple alignments of protein sequences. Elements of the algorithm include fast distance estimation using kmer counting, progressive alignment using a new profile function we call the log-expectation score, and refinement using tree-dependent restricted partitioning. The speed and accuracy of MUSCLE are compared with T-Coffee, MAFFT and CLUSTALW on four test sets of reference alignments: BAliBASE, SABmark, SMART and a new benchmark, PREFAB. MUSCLE achieves the highest, or joint highest, rank in accuracy on each of these sets. Without refinement, MUSCLE achieves average accuracy statistically indistinguishable from T-Coffee and MAFFT, and is the fastest of the tested methods for large numbers of sequences, aligning 5000 sequences of average length 350 in 7 min on a current desktop computer. The MUSCLE program, source code and PREFAB test data are freely available at http://www.drive5. com/muscle.
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            MEGA6: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 6.0.

            We announce the release of an advanced version of the Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software, which currently contains facilities for building sequence alignments, inferring phylogenetic histories, and conducting molecular evolutionary analysis. In version 6.0, MEGA now enables the inference of timetrees, as it implements the RelTime method for estimating divergence times for all branching points in a phylogeny. A new Timetree Wizard in MEGA6 facilitates this timetree inference by providing a graphical user interface (GUI) to specify the phylogeny and calibration constraints step-by-step. This version also contains enhanced algorithms to search for the optimal trees under evolutionary criteria and implements a more advanced memory management that can double the size of sequence data sets to which MEGA can be applied. Both GUI and command-line versions of MEGA6 can be downloaded from free of charge.
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              The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees.

              A new method called the neighbor-joining method is proposed for reconstructing phylogenetic trees from evolutionary distance data. The principle of this method is to find pairs of operational taxonomic units (OTUs [= neighbors]) that minimize the total branch length at each stage of clustering of OTUs starting with a starlike tree. The branch lengths as well as the topology of a parsimonious tree can quickly be obtained by using this method. Using computer simulation, we studied the efficiency of this method in obtaining the correct unrooted tree in comparison with that of five other tree-making methods: the unweighted pair group method of analysis, Farris's method, Sattath and Tversky's method, Li's method, and Tateno et al.'s modified Farris method. The new, neighbor-joining method and Sattath and Tversky's method are shown to be generally better than the other methods.

                Author and article information

                Syst Appl Microbiol
                Syst. Appl. Microbiol
                Systematic and Applied Microbiology
                G. Fischer Verlag
                1 June 2017
                June 2017
                : 40
                : 4
                : 215-226
                [a ]Department of Chemistry, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, South Africa
                [b ]Department of Crop Sciences, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, South Africa
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author at: Department of Chemistry, Tshwane University of Technology, Arcadia Campus, 175 Nelson Mandela Drive, Private Bag X680, Pretoria 0001, South Africa. Fax: +27 12 382 6286.Department of ChemistryTshwane University of TechnologyPretoriaSouth Africa dakorafd@
                © 2017 The Author(s)

                This is an open access article under the CC BY license (



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