Patients with long-term tracheostomies, with or without mechanical ventilation have complex and comprehensive healthcare needs. The number of patients is increasing internationally. Evidence suggests poor healthcare quality and outcomes, especially in Germany. Against this background, we searched for international concepts tailoring healthcare to these special needs, their key characteristics and results from their evaluations.
A scoping review was performed in 2018 based on a systematic search of scientific databases and grey literature without restrictions to publication type. Key information was charted and thematically analysed based on the taxonomy of integrated care. Evaluations were analysed descriptively.
Seventy-nine publications related to 25 programmes from five countries were included. Healthcare concepts are usually regionally adapted and tertiary sector-based with a cross-sectoral approach. Care coordination responsibility is usually assigned to advanced nurse practitioners, embedded in multi-professional programme teams. Interventions consist of specialised needs-based clinical services combined with care coordination, homecare support and education. Evaluation of concepts is scarce, but existing results indicate beneficial effects on patient-related outcomes, care coordination, healthcare utilisation and costs.
The concepts available in the literature are often poorly described and rarely evaluated. Research is needed on their impact on healthcare quality and outcomes. However, several key characteristics were identified, which should be considered when developing and implementing integrated and needs-based approaches for the patient group in Germany and beyond.