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      Low-temperature exposure has immediate and lasting effects on the stress tolerance, chemotaxis and proteome of entomopathogenic nematodes

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          Abstract

          Abstract

          Temperature is one of the most important factors affecting soil organisms, including the infective stages of parasites and entomopathogenic nematodes, which are important biological control agents. We investigated the response of 2 species of entomopathogenic nematodes to different storage regimes: cold (9°C), culture temperature (20°C) and temperature swapped from 9 to 20°C. For Steinernema carpocapsae, cold storage had profound effects on chemotaxis, stress tolerance and protein expression that were retained in temperature-swapped individuals. These effects included reversal of chemotactic response for 3 (prenol, methyl salicylate and hexanol) of the 4 chemicals tested, and enhanced tolerance to freezing (−10°C) and desiccation (75% RH). Label-free quantitative proteomics showed that cold storage induced widespread changes in S. carpocapsae, including an increase in heat-shock proteins and late embryogenesis abundant proteins. For Heterorhabditis megidis, cold storage had a less dramatic effect on chemotaxis (as previously shown for proteomic expression) and changes were not maintained on return to 20°C. Thus, cold temperature exposure has significant effects on entomopathogenic nematodes, but the nature of the change depends on the species. Steinernema carpocapsae, in particular, displays significant plasticity, and its behaviour and stress tolerance may be manipulated by brief exposure to low temperatures, with implications for its use as a biological control agent.

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          Andromeda: a peptide search engine integrated into the MaxQuant environment.

          A key step in mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics is the identification of peptides in sequence databases by their fragmentation spectra. Here we describe Andromeda, a novel peptide search engine using a probabilistic scoring model. On proteome data, Andromeda performs as well as Mascot, a widely used commercial search engine, as judged by sensitivity and specificity analysis based on target decoy searches. Furthermore, it can handle data with arbitrarily high fragment mass accuracy, is able to assign and score complex patterns of post-translational modifications, such as highly phosphorylated peptides, and accommodates extremely large databases. The algorithms of Andromeda are provided. Andromeda can function independently or as an integrated search engine of the widely used MaxQuant computational proteomics platform and both are freely available at www.maxquant.org. The combination enables analysis of large data sets in a simple analysis workflow on a desktop computer. For searching individual spectra Andromeda is also accessible via a web server. We demonstrate the flexibility of the system by implementing the capability to identify cofragmented peptides, significantly improving the total number of identified peptides.
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            LEA proteins prevent protein aggregation due to water stress.

            LEA (late embryogenesis abundant) proteins in both plants and animals are associated with tolerance to water stress resulting from desiccation and cold shock. However, although various functions of LEA proteins have been proposed, their precise role has not been defined. Recent bioinformatics studies suggest that LEA proteins might behave as molecular chaperones, and the current study was undertaken to test this hypothesis. Recombinant forms of AavLEA1, a group 3 LEA protein from the anhydrobiotic nematode Aphelenchus avenae, and Em, a group 1 LEA protein from wheat, have been subjected to functional analysis. Heat-stress experiments with citrate synthase, which is susceptible to aggregation at high temperatures, suggest that LEA proteins do not behave as classical molecular chaperones, but they do exhibit a protective, synergistic effect in the presence of the so-called chemical chaperone, trehalose. In contrast, both LEA proteins can independently protect citrate synthase from aggregation due to desiccation and freezing, in keeping with a role in water-stress tolerance; similar results were obtained with lactate dehydrogenase. This is the first evidence of anti-aggregation activity of LEA proteins due to water stress. Again, a synergistic effect of LEA and trehalose was observed, which is significant given that non-reducing disaccharides are known to accumulate during dehydration in plants and nematodes. A model is proposed whereby LEA proteins might act as a novel form of molecular chaperone, or 'molecular shield', to help prevent the formation of damaging protein aggregates during water stress.
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              A METHOD FOR OBTAINING INFECTIVE NEMATODE LARVAE FROM CULTURES.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Parasitology
                Parasitology
                PAR
                Parasitology
                Cambridge University Press (Cambridge, UK )
                0031-1820
                1469-8161
                January 2023
                14 October 2022
                : 150
                : 1
                : 15-28
                Affiliations
                [1]Department of Biology, Maynooth University , Maynooth, County Kildare, Ireland
                Author notes
                Author for correspondence: Christine T. Griffin, E-mail: Christine.Griffin@ 123456mu.ie
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0399-8932
                Article
                S0031182022001445
                10.1017/S0031182022001445
                10090647
                36328953
                f80ed87b-3e3d-455e-9513-93e5570dce39
                © The Author(s) 2022

                This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution and reproduction, provided the original article is properly cited.

                History
                : 09 August 2022
                : 03 October 2022
                : 07 October 2022
                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 2, References: 92, Pages: 14
                Funding
                Funded by: Maynooth University
                Award ID: John and Pat Hume Doctoral Fellowship
                Categories
                Research Article

                Parasitology
                behaviour,biocontrol,dauer,heterorhabditis megidis,infective juvenile,infective larva,steinernema carpocapsae,storage,survival

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