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      Decreased Functional Capacity in Individuals with Chronic Non-Specific Low Back Pain: A Cross-Sectional Comparative Study

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          This study aimed to compare functional capacity tests between individuals with and without chronic non-specific low back pain and to investigate the effects of demographic data on functional capacity tests.


          Thirty individuals with chronic non-specific low back pain (CNSLBP) and thirty healthy individuals underwent three functional capacity tests comprising functional reach test (FRT), five-time sit to stand test (5 TSST), and two-minute step test (2 MST). CNSLBP were assessed in pain intensity using a visual analog scale (VAS) and disability level using the modified Oswestry disability questionnaire (MODQ) Thai version.


          The results found significant differences in five-time sit to stand and two-minute step tests between individuals with chronic non-specific low back pain and healthy individuals. The mean differences between healthy and CNSLBP for the 5 TSST were −3.24 seconds (95% CI=−4.47–−2.02) and for the 2 MST they were 13.13 steps (95% CI=2.62–23.64). Age significantly influenced the 5 TSST ( P=0.004) and 2 MST ( P=0.008), while gender ( P=0.028) and height ( P=0.002) affected the FRT.


          Individuals with chronic non-specific low back pain had lower functional capacity assessed by five-time sit to stand and 2-minute step tests compared to healthy individuals, and the therapeutic programs were emphasized. With increasing age, the 5 TSST and 2 MST would both be declined.

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          Most cited references 26

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          Non-specific low back pain.

          Non-specific low back pain affects people of all ages and is a leading contributor to disease burden worldwide. Management guidelines endorse triage to identify the rare cases of low back pain that are caused by medically serious pathology, and so require diagnostic work-up or specialist referral, or both. Because non-specific low back pain does not have a known pathoanatomical cause, treatment focuses on reducing pain and its consequences. Management consists of education and reassurance, analgesic medicines, non-pharmacological therapies, and timely review. The clinical course of low back pain is often favourable, thus many patients require little if any formal medical care. Two treatment strategies are currently used, a stepped approach beginning with more simple care that is progressed if the patient does not respond, and the use of simple risk prediction methods to individualise the amount and type of care provided. The overuse of imaging, opioids, and surgery remains a widespread problem.
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            Fear of movement/(re)injury in chronic low back pain and its relation to behavioral performance.

            Two studies are presented that investigated 'fear of movement/(re)injury' in chronic musculoskeletal pain and its relation to behavioral performance. The 1st study examines the relation among fear of movement/(re)injury (as measured with the Dutch version of the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK-DV)) (Kori et al. 1990), biographical variables (age, pain duration, gender, use of supportive equipment, compensation status), pain-related variables (pain intensity, pain cognitions, pain coping) and affective distress (fear and depression) in a group of 103 chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients. In the 2nd study, motoric, psychophysiologic and self-report measures of fear are taken from 33 CLBP patients who are exposed to a single and relatively simple movement. Generally, findings demonstrated that the fear of movement/(re)injury is related to gender and compensation status, and more closely to measures of catastrophizing and depression, but in a much lesser degree to pain coping and pain intensity. Furthermore, subjects who report a high degree of fear of movement/(re)injury show more fear and escape/avoidance when exposed to a simple movement. The discussion focuses on the clinical relevance of the construct of fear of movement/(re)injury and research questions that remain to be answered.
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              Pain-related fear is more disabling than pain itself: evidence on the role of pain-related fear in chronic back pain disability


                Author and article information

                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                05 August 2020
                : 13
                : 1979-1986
                [1 ]Division of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Mahidol University , Nakhon Pathom, Thailand
                [2 ]Physical Therapy Center, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Mahidol University , Bangkok, Thailand
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Roongtiwa Vachalathiti Physical Therapy Center, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Mahidol University , Nakhon Pathom73170, Thailand Email roongtiwa.vac@mahidol.ac.th
                © 2020 Vachalathiti et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 7, References: 31, Pages: 8
                Original Research


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