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      Inhibitors Directed towards Caspase-1 and -3 Are Less Effective than Pan Caspase Inhibition in Preventing Renal Proximal Tubular Cell Apoptosis

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          Background: Uncontrolled apoptosis contributes to tubular cell deletion in renal scarring. Caspase-3 has a central role in the execution of apoptosis and may provide a target for regulating cell death. Here we evaluate three caspase inhibitors: B-D-FMK (pan caspase inhibitor), Z-DEVDFMK (predominantly Caspase-3 inhibitor) and Z-VAD-FMK (predominantly Caspase-1 and -3 inhibitor) to ameliorate apoptosis induced by cisplatin in rat proximal tubular (RPT) cells. Methods: Caspase-3 activity (substrate cleavage assay) and protein (immunocytochemistry and Western blotting), apoptosis (Annexin V flow cytometry, in situend labelling of fragmented DNA, light/electron microscopy and DNA laddering) and cell survival (trypan blue exclusion and propidium iodide flow cytometry) were determined in RPT cells exposed to cisplatin with and without caspase inhibitors. Results: Cisplatin induced a dose-dependent increase in Caspase-3 activity and 8-fold of increase in apoptosis (p < 0.01) when applied for 24 h at 100 µ M. B-D-FMK (40 µ M), Z-DEVD-FMK (15 µ M) and Z-VAD-FMK (22 µ M) almost completely inhibited the 25-fold increase in Caspase-3 activity and decreased apoptosis from 15.9 ± 4.4 to 2.0 ± 0.6% (p < 0.01), 15.0 ± 2.2 and 15.0 ± 2.2% respectively. DNA ladders were visible in cisplatin-treated cells, which disappeared following addition of B-D-FMK and decreased with Z-VAD-FMK and Z-DEVD-FMK. Cisplatin reduced cell survival to 61% by trypan blue exclusion. B-D-FMK and Z-VAD-FMK increased this to 87 and 75%, but Z-DEVD-FMK had no significant effect. Conclusions: Cisplatin causes an increase in RPT apoptosis that is associated with increased Caspase-3 activity. All caspase inhibitors were equally effective at reducing Caspase-3 activity, however the pan caspase inhibitor B-D-FMK was more effective at preventing apoptosis and increasing cell survival. Therefore, pan caspase inhibition offers the greatest potential for the prevention of renal tubular cell deletion by uncontrolled apoptosis.

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          Most cited references 11

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          Longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans reduced by mating but not gamete production.

          Theories of life-history evolution propose that trade-offs occur between fitness components, including longevity and maximal reproduction. In Drosophila, female lifespan is shortened by increased egg production, receipt of male accessory fluid and courting. Male lifespan is also reduced by courting and/or mating. Here we show that in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, mating with males reduces the lifespan of hermaphrodites by a mechanism independent of egg production or receipt of sperm. Conversely, males appear unaffected by mating. Thus, in C. elegans there is no apparent trade-off between longevity and increased egg or sperm production, but there is a substantial cost to hermaphrodites associated with copulation.
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            The roles of caspase-3 and bcl-2 in chemically-induced apoptosis but not necrosis of renal epithelial cells.

            The kidney is a target for toxicants including cisplatin and S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (DCVC), a metabolite of the environmental contaminant, trichloroethylene. Necrosis is well characterized in kidney cells, but pathways leading to apoptosis are less clear. Cysteine conjugates are useful toxicants because they induce either necrosis or apoptosis depending on chemical structure or antioxidant status. Herein, we show that in the renal epithelial cell line LLC-PK1, activation of caspase-3 (CPP32/Yama/apopain) is crucial for apoptosis, but not necrosis. Apoptosis was blocked by zVAD.fmk, and partially by a cathepsin inhibitor. Caspase-3 activity and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) was detected only during apoptosis. S-(1,1,2,2-Tetrafluoroethyl)-L-cysteine (TFEC), a metabolite of tetrafluoroethylene, kills cells only by necrosis, and did not activate caspases under any conditions. Apoptosis and activation of caspase-3 by cisplatin, but not DCVC, was prevented by bcl-2. Thus, caspase-3 activation by bcl-2-dependent and -independent mechanisms is a terminal event in chemical-apoptosis of renal epithelial cells.
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              Calpain is a mediator of preservation-reperfusion injury in rat liver transplantation.

              Proteases as well as alterations in intracellular calcium have important roles in hepatic preservation-reperfusion injury, and increased calpain activity recently has been demonstrated in liver allografts. Experiments were designed to evaluate (i) hepatic cytosolic calpain activity during different periods of cold ischemia (CI), rewarming, or reperfusion, and (ii) effects of inhibition of calpain on liver graft function using the isolated perfused rat liver and arterialized orthotopic liver transplantation models. Calpain activity was assayed using the fluorogenic substrate Suc-Leu-Leu-Val-Tyr-7-amino-4-methyl coumarin (AMC) and expressed as mean +/- SD pmol AMC released/min per mg of cytosolic protein. Calpain activity rose significantly after 24 hr of CI in University of Wisconsin solution and further increased with longer preservation. Activity also increased within 30 min of rewarming, peaking at 120 min. Increased durations of CI preceding rewarming resulted in significantly higher activity (P < 0.01). Calpain activity increased rapidly upon reperfusion and was significantly enhanced by previous CI (P < 0.01). Calpain inhibition with Cbz-Val-Phe methyl ester significantly decreased aspartate aminotransferase released in the isolated perfused rat liver perfusate (P < 0.05). Duration of survival after orthotopic liver transplantation using livers cold-preserved for 40 hr was also significantly increased (P < 0.05) with calpain inhibitor. In conclusion, calpain proteases are activated during each phase of transplantation and are likely to play an important role in the mechanisms of preservation-reperfusion injury.

                Author and article information

                Nephron Exp Nephrol
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                February 2004
                17 November 2004
                : 96
                : 2
                : e39-e51
                aSheffield Kidney Institute, Sheffield University Division of Clinical Sciences, bDepartment of Histopathology, Northern General Hospital Trust, and cCellular Immunophenotyping & UK NEQAS Laboratories, Department of Haematology, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield; dDepartment of Nephrology, Leicester University, Leicester General Hospital, Leicester, UK
                76403 Nephron Exp Nephrol 2004;96:e39–e51
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 9, References: 36, Pages: 1
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