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      Estudio sobre la salud mental de una población de niños y niñas escolarizados desde la perspectiva epidemiológica

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          Abstract

          Resumen Se presentan resultados de una investigación empírica sobre problemas comportamentales en niños y niñas escolarizados entre 6 y 11 años. El objetivo principal es describir, desde la perspectiva epidemiológica, los problemas comportamentales de una muestra clínica (N = 395; edad: . = 7.92 y DE = 1.75) y de una muestra no clínica (N = 363; edad: . = 8.78 años y DE = 1.73). Son objetivos específicos el analizar las diferencias por sexo y variables sociodemográficas en ambos contextos: clínico y no clínico. No se efectuó un estudio comparativo entre ambas muestras. Se administró el formulario Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) y una encuesta sociodemográfica a los adultos responsables. El análisis cuantitativo se efectuó mediante estudios de frecuencia, distribución y asociaciones entre variables con el objetivo de describir a ambas muestras desde el punto de vista de los resultados del CBCL y de las variables sociodemográficas. Se estudiaron asociaciones entre los valores de las escalas de síndromes del CBCL y las variables sociodemográficas mediante el análisis de la varianza (ANOVA). Se obtuvieron asociaciones estadísticamente significativas entre la presencia de problemas comportamentales y las condiciones socioeconómicas de la familia: a mayor vulnerabilidad socioeconómica y educativa, mayor deterioro en la salud mental infantil. Este estudio se encontró con la dificultad de las restricciones sanitarias por la pandemia de COVID-19 para continuar el trabajo de campo. Interesa replicar el estudio y considerar el impacto de la pandemia y el presunto deterioro de las variables sociodemográficas. Se debe priorizar la continuidad de una indagación sostenida para un seguimiento de la salud mental infantil.

          Translated abstract

          Abstract This article shows the results of an empirical research study on behavioral and emotional problems in schoolchildren between 6 and 11 years old. From an epidemiological perspective the goal is to describe the behavioral problems of a clinical sample (N= 395, age: . = 7.92 y SD = 1.75) and a non-clinical sample (N = 363, age: M = 8.78 años y DE = 1.73). The specific objectives are to analyze the differences by sex and possible sociodemographic variables in both clinical and non-clinical contexts. A comparative study between both samples is not carried out. We administered the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and a sociodemographic survey to the responsible adults. The quantitative analysis was carried out through studies of frequency, distribution and associations among variables in order to describe both samples from the point of view of the CBCL results and of the sociodemographic variables. In order to identify the possible sociodemographic conditioning factors in the childhood and youth psychopathology, we studied the associations among the CBCL syndrome scale scores and the different sociodemographic variables through the analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results of the clinical sample show mental health deterioration in boys and girls compared to previous studies. The increase of the internalizing and externalizing syndrome scores is significant. The prejudices and gender stereotypes constitute obstacles to gain access to mental health services in childhood, especially for girls whose psychological conditions may often go unnoticed. In the non-clinical sample, the gender distribution is even and the total average of average scores is lower compared to studies performed in other populations in previous years. In both samples we observe a significant relation between the psychological and behavioral problems and the socio-economic conditions of the family. The higher the educational and socio-economic vulnerability, the higher the deterioration of the children’s mental health. The simultaneous study from the epidemiological perspective in both samples is necessary to detect psychopathological problems in childhood. This study encountered some limitations: the difficulty to continue the field work due to sanitary restrictions because of the COVID-19 pandemic. We want to replicate the study in both samples considering the impact of the pandemic and the alleged deterioration of the sociodemographic variables and family conditions. Another limitation has been the socio-economic homogeneity of the clinical sample. It would be useful in the future to include clinical samples that belong to other socioeconomic sectors who receive mental health care from private medical insurances or medical insurances run by labor unions. The shortage of epidemiological studies on emotional and behavioral problems in children and the lack of research work on the right to receive mental health care in childhood, indicate the absence of this topic in the political agenda. This deficit prevents the implementation of efficient programs to prevent and early detect mental health problems in children, to extend clinical care proposals in the community and to train professionals so that the programs can have an accurate impact on the population. It is a priority to continue the sustained inquiry in both populations in order to ensure the follow-up of the mental health conditions. Also, it would be useful to extend and deepen the analysis incorporating the examination of other family problems such as violence situations, consumption of psychoactive drugs, suicides and other loss situation.

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          Most cited references32

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          The role of mentalizing and epistemic trust in the therapeutic relationship.

          Mentalizing--the capacity to understand others' and one's own behavior in terms of mental states-is a defining human social and psychological achievement. It involves a complex and demanding spectrum of capacities that are susceptible to different strengths, weakness, and failings; personality disorders are often associated with severe and consistent mentalizing difficulties (Fonagy & Bateman, 2008). In this article, we will argue for the role of mentalizing in the therapeutic relationship, suggesting that although mentalization-based treatment may be a specific and particular form of practice, the "mentalizing therapist" is a universal constituent of effective psychotherapeutic interventions.
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            Behavioral and Emotional Problems Reported by Parents of Children Ages 6 to 16 in 31 Societies

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              A Psychometric Analysis of the Child Behavior Checklist DSM-Oriented Scales

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                interd
                Interdisciplinaria
                Interdisciplinaria
                Centro Interamericano de Investigaciones Psicológicas y Ciencias Afines (CIIPCA) (Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, , Argentina )
                1668-7027
                August 2023
                : 40
                : 2
                : 373-391
                Affiliations
                [3] orgnameUniversidad de Buenos Aires Argentina
                [6] orgnameUniversidad de Buenos Aires Argentina
                [4] orgnameUniversidad de Buenos Aires Argentina
                [1] orgnameUniversidad de Buenos Aires Argentina
                [2] orgnameUniversidad de Buenos Aires Argentina
                [7] orgnameUniversidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina
                [5] orgnameUniversidad de Buenos Aires Argentina
                Article
                S1668-70272023000200373 S1668-7027(23)04000200373
                10.16888/interd.2023.40.2.22
                f84003e7-4278-4e6b-baa3-377d4906b127

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

                History
                : 11 April 2023
                : 10 July 2021
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 33, Pages: 19
                Product

                SciELO Argentina

                Categories
                Artículos

                Child Behavior Checklist,salud mental,niñez,condiciones sociodemográficas,mental health,childhood,sociodemographic conditions

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