One novel solution to the shortage of human kidneys available for transplantation envisions ‘growing’ new kidneys in situ via xenotransplantation of renal anlagen. We and others have shown that developing metanephroi transplanted into animal hosts undergo differentiation and growth, become vascularized by blood vessels of host origin and exhibit excretory function. Metanephroi can be stored for up to 3 days in vitro prior to transplantation with no impairment in growth or function post-implantation. Metanephroi can be transplanted across both concordant (rat to mouse) and discordant/highly disparate (pig to rodent) xenogeneic barriers. Here we review studies exploring the potential therapeutic use of embryonic kidney transplantation.