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      Complex middle cerebral artery aneurysms: a new classification based on the angioarchitecture and surgical strategies

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          Abstract

          Background

          Because of the diversity of aneurysm morphology, complicated arterial anatomy and hemodynamic characteristics, tailored surgical treatments are required for cases of individual complex middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms.

          Methods

          During an 8-year period, 59 complex MCA aneurysms in 58 patients were treated microsurgically in our department. Complex aneurysms were defined as having large (10–24 mm in diameter) or giant (diameter ≥ 25 mm) size or non-saccular morphology (fusiform, dissecting or serpentine).

          Results

          Direct clipping of the aneurysmal necks was achieved in eight patients, while reconstructive clipping was performed in 25 patients. Indirect aneurysm occlusion was performed in 25 cases, including trapping or resecting the aneurysm in four cases, trapping or resecting the aneurysm with extra-intracranial (EC) or intra-intracranial (IC) bypass in 21 cases and internal carotid artery (ICA) sacrifice with EC-IC bypass in one case. Forty-eight aneurysms (81.4 %) were completely obliterated. Graft patency was confirmed in 20 of 21 cases (95.2 %) with bypass. A recurrent aneurysm was detected in one case and a re-operation was performed. Two patients with Hunt-Hess grade IV aneurysms died during the perioperative period. Overall, 52 cases (88.1 %) had good outcomes (Glasgow Outcome Scale ≥ 4) during the late follow-up period.

          Conclusion

          The surgical modality and strategy for treating complex MCA aneurysm are decided according to the morphology of the aneurysm, vascular anatomy and the hemodynamic characteristics of each case. Thus, we developed a new classification based on the angioarchitecture. Favorable outcomes can be achieved by treating complex MCA aneurysms with appropriate surgical modalities, strategies and techniques.

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          Most cited references 21

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          Giant fusiform intracranial aneurysms: review of 120 patients treated surgically from 1965 to 1992.

          The paucity of information about giant fusiform intracranial aneurysms prompted this review of 120 surgically treated patients. Twenty-five aneurysms were located in the anterior and 95 in the posterior circulation. Six patients suffered from atherosclerosis and only three others had a known arteriopathy. The remaining 111 patients presented with aneurysms resulting from an unknown arterial disorder; these patients were much younger than those harboring atherosclerotic aneurysms. Mass effect occurred in only 50% of cases and hemorrhage in 20%. Eight aneurysms caused transient ischemic attacks. Hunterian proximal occlusion or trapping were dominant among the treatment methods. In contrast to the management of giant saccular aneurysms, the usual thrombotic occlusion of a giant fusiform aneurysm after proximal parent artery occlusion requires the presence of two collateral circulations to prevent infarction, one for the end vessels and another for the perforating vessels that arise from the aneurysm. Although there was some reliance on the circle of Willis and on collateral vessels manufactured at surgery, the extent of natural leptomeningeal and perforating collateral, thalamic, lenticulostriate, and brainstem vessels was astonishing and formerly unknown to the authors. Good outcome occurred in 76% of patients with aneurysms in the anterior circulation; two of the six cases with poor results included patients who were already hemiplegic. Ninety percent of patients with posterior cerebral aneurysms fared well. Only 67% of patients with basilar or vertebral aneurysms had good outcomes, although more (17%) of these patients were in poor condition preoperatively because of brainstem compression.
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            Current management of middle cerebral artery aneurysms: surgical results with a "clip first" policy.

            One response to randomized trials like the International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial has been to adopt a "coil first" policy, whereby all aneurysms be considered for coiling, reserving surgery for unfavorable aneurysms or failed attempts. Surgical results with middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms have been excellent, raising debate about the respective roles of surgical and endovascular therapy.
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              Giant intracranial aneurysms: development, clinical presentation and treatment.

              The natural history of giant intracranial aneurysms are grave. More than 50% of patients suffer from rupture of these aneurysms and mortality is >60% in 2 years. Modern technology and advancement of knowledge in neurosurgery and interventional neuroradiology have altered its natural course for the better. As many reports have shown, the majority of these aneurysms can be treated either by surgery or by endovascular approach, even though morbidity is higher than when treating smaller aneurysms. Certain aneurysms are more suitable to direct surgical clipping and others may have better chances of good clinical outcome by endovascular treatment. It is imperative to analyse the location, morphology, hemodynamics and circulation of normal brain of each aneurysm before the mode of treatment is decided. Needless to say, the individual patient's age, neurological and medical condition should be considered. For endovascular treatment, application of each technique, endosaccular occlusion or parent artery occlusion depends on the aneurysm location and geometry as well as its pathology. Several reports indicated that clinical outcome is better in patients treated by parent artery occlusion since it eliminates any blood flow to the aneurysm and it provides a more effective reduction of the mass effect. However, not all parent arteries can be sacrificed. In addition, endosaccular treatment is effective in preventing haemorrhage if the aneurysm is not re-canalised. It is also demonstrated that symptoms of mass effect can be reversed by endosaccular coiling. The patients who are treated this way should be closely monitored for re-canalisation.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                Department of Neurosurgery, Huashan Hospital of Fudan University, 12 Wulumuqi zhong Road, Shanghai, 200040 China
                Contributors
                +86-21-52888771 , +86-21-62492884 , lfzhouc@online.sh.cn
                +86-21-52887670 , +86-21-62492884 , maoying@fudan.edu.cn
                Journal
                Acta Neurochir (Wien)
                Acta Neurochir (Wien)
                Acta Neurochirurgica
                Springer Vienna (Vienna )
                0001-6268
                0942-0940
                30 May 2013
                30 May 2013
                August 2013
                : 155
                : 8
                : 1481-1491
                1751
                10.1007/s00701-013-1751-8
                3718994
                23715946
                © The Author(s) 2013

                Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and the source are credited.

                Categories
                Clinical Article -Neurosurgical Techniques
                Custom metadata
                © Springer-Verlag Wien 2013

                Surgery

                complex aneurysm, middle cerebral artery, bypass surgery, clipping

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