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      Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibition Modulates High-Glucose-Induced Extracellular Matrix Changes in Mouse Glomerular Epithelial Cells

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          Background/Aim: Extracellular matrix alterations are involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. We evaluated the effects of high glucose concentrations and inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme on the laminin and fibronectin production by glomerular epithelial cells. Methods: Glomerular epithelial cells were cultured in 5 and 30 mmol/l glucose, with and without enalaprilat (0.3 mmol/l). Laminin and fibronectin were measured (<sup>35</sup>S-methionine, immunoprecipitation), and their mRNA expression was evaluated (RT-PCR). Results: The laminin concentration was higher in the cells than in the medium, where an increase of its content was observed under high-glucose conditions (p < 0.01). Fibronectin, found only in the medium, was not modified by the high glucose concentration. Following enalaprilat administration, the laminin concentration was decreased under high-glucose conditions, both in the cell and in the medium (p < 0.001), whereas the fibronectin concentration was increased under high-glucose conditions (p < 0.001). The mRNA expression of laminin and fibronectin under high-glucose conditions only slightly increased. Enalaprilat decreased the fibronectin mRNA synthesis dramatically (>50%, p < 0.0001) under high-glucose conditions. Conclusions: Enalaprilat normalizes the abnormal, high-glucose-induced concentration of laminin, while it decreases the fibronectin synthesis. The improvement of the renal function in diabetic patients treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors may, in part, be due to a modulator effect on extracellular matrix content and composition.

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          Most cited references 6

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          Decreased matrix degradation in diabetic nephropathy: effects of ACE inhibition on the expression and activities of matrix metalloproteinases.

          Extracellular matrix accumulation is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Increased matrix synthesis has been well documented but the effects of diabetes on degradative pathways, particularly in the in vivo setting, have not been fully explored. Furthermore, the effect of renoprotective therapies on matrix accumulation through these pathways has not been examined. We investigated the degradative pathway of type IV collagen and the effects of ACE inhibition in experimental diabetic nephropathy. Diabetes was induced in 16 rats by administrating streptozocin; 8 of the diabetic rats were allocated at random to receive the ACE inhibitor perindopril (2 mg/l) in their drinking water and 8 age and weight matched rats served as controls. Gene expression of matrix metalloproteinase ( MMP) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase ( TIMP) was measured by RT-PCR and type IV collagen content by immunohistochemistry. MMP activities were determined by degradation of a radiolabelled substrate and by zymography. Six months of diabetes was associated with a decrease in mRNA and enzymatic activity of MMP-9 (21 % and 51 % respectively, p < 0.05 vs control) and a 51 % increase in TIMP-1 mRNA ( p < 0.05 vs control). By contrast, MMP-2 mRNA was increased but its activity decreased (43 % and 43 % respectively, p < 0.05 vs control). Total degradative capacity of kidney tissue from diabetic rats was also lower (Control: 48 +/- 7 %, Diabetic: 33 +/- 6 %, p < 0.05). Activation of latent MMPs with amino-phenylmercuric acetate increased matrix degradation by two-fold. However the relative decrease associated with experimental diabetes still remained. All diabetes-associated changes in MMP and TIMP mRNA and activities were attenuated by perindopril treatment in association with reduced type IV collagen accumulation. These results indicate that the impairment of matrix degradation contributes to matrix accumulation in diabetic nephropathy and that the beneficial effects of ACE inhibition could in part be mediated by modulation of changes in matrix degradative pathways.
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            Sequential effects of high glucose on mesangial cell transforming growth factor-beta 1 and fibronectin synthesis.

             David J. Oh,  J. Yu,  E Ha (1998)
            Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta is recognized as the final common mediator of the principal lesions of diabetic nephropathy such as renal hypertrophy and mesangial expansion. To gain better understanding of the temporal relationships between high glucose (HG) and mesangial cell (MC) TGF-beta 1 synthesis and between TGF-beta 1 and extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis, the present study examined early and sequential effects of HG on TGF-beta 1 and fibronectin (FN) mRNA expression and protein synthesis. Confluent primary rat MC was stimulated with 5.6 (control) or 30 (high) mM glucose after synchronizing the growth by incubation with serum-free media for 48 hours. Mesangial cell TGF-beta 1 mRNA expression increased significantly in six hours and continued to increase until 48 hours in response to HG. The level of TGF-beta 1 mRNA was 1.5-fold higher than that of control glucose at six hours and 1.8-fold at 48 hours. TGF-beta activity in heat-activated conditioned media under HG increased 1.5- and 1.6-fold at 24 and 48 hours, respectively, compared to control glucose. FN mRNA increased significantly at 24 and 48 hours and 1.4-fold that of control glucose at both time points. FN protein also increased 1.5-fold that of control glucose at 48 hours. Anti-TGF-beta antibody completely abolished HG-induced FN synthesis. The present finding demonstrate that HG stimulates TGF-beta 1 very early and prior to FN production and that HG-induced FN production is mediated by TGF-beta. This finding is consistent with the view that TGF-beta mediates increased ECM accumulation by MC under high glucose conditions.
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              Gene expression of the renin-angiotensin system in human kidney


                Author and article information

                Nephron Exp Nephrol
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                September 2003
                17 November 2004
                : 95
                : 1
                : e30-e35
                aDivision of Endocrinology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Clinica Medica 2, and bDepartment of Experimental Medicine and Pathology, La Sapienza University, Rome, Italy
                73021 Nephron Exp Nephrol 2003;95:e30–e35
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 3, References: 27, Pages: 1
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/73021
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