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      Evaluation of amiodarone versus metoprolol in treating atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass grafting


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          Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia affecting patients in open heart ICU after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Most cardiac surgery textbooks recommend beta blockers as the drug of choice for treating such a condition while many experienced physicians and a number of anesthesiology references offer amiodarone as the drug of choice. Therefore, because of insufficient evidence and the aforementioned controversy, we decided to conduct a study evaluating these two antiarrhythmic medicines.


          This is a double-blind, randomized, clinical trial performed on patients admitted for CABG at Amir al Momenin hospital in Arak province, Iran, who developed new onset AF after surgery. Based on the type of medication used, these patients were randomly divided into two groups: amiodarone (A) group and metoprolol (M) group. Each group consisted of 73 cases. All data were analyzed via SPSS 19.


          Among the results achieved in this study, amiodarone was successful in treating AF in 55 patients (73%), while metoprolol achieved normal rhythm in treating AF in 69 patients (92%). With a p-value of 0.04, it seems that metoprolol is more effective in treating AF.


          Metoprolol seems to be a most efficacious medication for post-CABG AF ( p-value = 0.004).

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          Most cited references23

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          Predictors of atrial fibrillation after coronary artery surgery. Current trends and impact on hospital resources.

          Atrial fibrillation (AF) after coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) is the most common sustained arrhythmia. Its pathophysiology is unclear, and its prevention and management remain suboptimal. The aim of this prospective study was to determine the current incidence of AF, identify its clinical predictors, and examine its impact on resource utilization. Over a 12-month period ending July 31, 1994, a CABG procedure was performed on 570 consecutive patients (age range, 32 to 87 years; median age, 67 years; 232 [41%] were > or = 70 years; 175 [31%] were women; 173 [30%] were diabetics; 364 [65%] required nonelective surgery; 86 [15%] had had a prior CABG; and 86 [15%] had had prior percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty). AF occurred in 189 patients (33%). The median age for patients with AF was 71 years compared with 66 for patients without (P = .0001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis (odds ratio, +/- 95% CI, P value) was used to identify the following independent predictors of postoperative AF: increasing age (age 70 to 80 years [OR = 2; CI, 1.3 to 3; P = .002], age > 80 years [OR = 3; CI, 1.6 to 5.8; P = .0007]), male gender (OR = 1.7; CI, 1.1 to 2.7; P = .01), hypertension (OR = 1.6; CI, 1.0 to 2.3; P = .03), need for an intraoperative intraaortic balloon pump (OR = 3.5; CI, 1.2 to 10.9; P = .03), postoperative pneumonia (OR = 3.9; CI, 1.3 to 11.5; P = .01), ventilation for > 24 hours (OR = 2; CI, 1.3 to 3.2; P = .003), and return to the intensive care unit (OR = 3.2; CI, 1.1 to 8.8; P = .03). The mean length of hospital stay after surgery was 15.3 +/- 28.6 days for patients with AF compared with 9.3 +/- 19.6 days for patients without AF (P = .001). The adjusted length of hospital stay attributable to AF was 4.9 days, corresponding to > or = $10 055 in hospital charges. AF remains the most common complication after CABG and consequently is a drain on hospital resources. Concerted efforts to reduce the incidence of AF and the associated increased length of stay would result in substantial cost saving and decrease patient morbidity.
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            Atrial fibrillation in heart failure: epidemiology, pathophysiology, and rationale for therapy

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              Hazards of postoperative atrial arrhythmias.

              Between January 1, 1986, and December 31, 1991, 4,507 adult patients underwent cardiac surgical procedures requiring cardiopulmonary bypass. Of these patients, 3,983 patients who did not undergo operation for supraventricular tachycardia and who were in normal sinus rhythm preoperatively form the study group for the present study. Postoperatively, all patients were monitored continuously for the development of arrhythmias until the time of hospital discharge. The incidence of atrial arrhythmias requiring treatment for the most commonly performed operative procedures were as follows: coronary artery bypass grafting, 31.9%; coronary artery bypass grafting and mitral valve replacement, 63.6%; coronary artery bypass grafting and aortic valve replacement, 48.8%; and heart transplantation, 11.1%. For all patients considered collectively, the risk factors associated with an increased incidence of postoperative atrial arrhythmias (p < 0.05 by multivariate logistic regression) included increasing patient age, preoperative use of digoxin, history of rheumatic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and increasing aortic cross-clamp time. Postoperative atrial fibrillation was associated with an increased incidence of postoperative stroke (3.3% versus 1.4%; p < 0.0005), increased length of hospitalization in the intensive care unit (5.7 versus 3.4 days; p = 0.001) and postoperative nursing ward (10.9 versus 7.5 days; p = 0.0001), increased incidence of postoperative ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation (9.2% versus 4.0%; p < 0.0005), and an increased need for placement of a permanent pacemaker (3.7% versus 1.6%; p < 0.0005). These data provide a basis for targeting specific patient subgroups for prospective, randomized trials of therapeutic modalities designed to decrease the incidence of postoperative atrial arrhythmias.

                Author and article information

                Interventional Medicine and Applied Science
                Interventional Medicine and Applied Science
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                31 March 2017
                June 2017
                : 9
                : 2
                : 51-55
                [ 1 ]Department of Anesthesiology, Arak University of Medical Sciences , Arak, Iran
                [ 2 ]Department of Surgery, Arak University of Medical Sciences , Arak, Iran
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: Amir Sanatkar, Medical Student; Department of Surgery, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran; Phone: +98 9123989268; E-mail: amirsanatkar@ 123456gmail.com
                © 2017 The Author(s)

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited.

                : 19 January 2017
                : 09 February 2017
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 7, Equations: 1, References: 26, Pages: 5
                Funding sources: This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
                ORIGINAL PAPER

                Medicine,Immunology,Health & Social care,Microbiology & Virology,Infectious disease & Microbiology
                coronary,metoprolol,amiodarone,atrial fibrillation,grafting


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