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      Retinoic Acid Increases in the Retina of the Chick with Form Deprivation Myopia

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          We previously reported that expression of retinoic acid receptor β increases in the sclera of the 2-week-old chick with form deprivation myopia (FDM) and that all- trans-retinoic acid ( t-RA) influences proliferation and differentiation of scleral cells. The purpose of this study was to quantify t-RA in the retina of the chick with FDM and to investigate the role of t-RA in FDM in the chick. FDM was induced in 2-day-old chicks by placement of a translucent plastic goggle over one eye, with the contralateral eye used as a control. After 5 days, the chicks were sacrificed. t-RA was extracted from neural retina and served for high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. <sup>3</sup>H- t-RA was used for normalization. Pieces of the retinae from 5 eyes served as one sample. As a result, t-RA was 0.960 ± 0.086 ng/eye (0.387 ± 0.056 ng/mg protein) in the myopic retina and 0.864 ± 0.108 ng/eye (0.319 ± 0.043 ng/mg protein) in the control retina. The concentration of t-RA (ng/mg protein) in the myopic retina was significantly higher than that in the control (p < 0.05, n = 7). These results demonstrate that t-RA increases in the retina within 5 days after visual deprivation. This finding suggests that t-RA may play a role in the metabolic changes in FDM.

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          Most cited references 3

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          Experimentally induced myopia in chicks: morphometric and biochemical analysis during the first 14 days after hatching.

          Application of a translucent goggle over the chick eye on the first day after hatching led to the development of myopia. By the 14th day, the mean refractive error was about -10.0 D. Significant increases in axial and equatorial diameters were observed when the treated eyes were compared with untreated contralateral eyes. The lens did not appear to be affected, either optically or biochemically. A temporal study showed that changes were evident within 2 days of goggle application, and were significantly established 5 days later. Total soluble protein concentrations of the treated and untreated eyes were not significantly different, nor were the dry weights of the sclera and cornea. The enlargement of the eyeball that was observed in the experimental induction of myopia seems due to an increase in fluid within the eye. The data are consistent with the view that refractive properties of the chick eye are dependent upon the clarity of the visual image and modulation of these features occurs after hatching.
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            Expression of retinoic acid receptor genes in neural crest-derived cells during mouse facial development.

             H Doi,  K Eto,  Tara Koyama (1990)
            Retinoic acid (RA) is known as a teratogen that induces abnormalities in facial structures which are made up mainly of neural crest-derived mesenchyme. We investigated expression patterns of RA receptor (RAR) genes (subtypes alpha, beta, gamma) during mouse facial development. The expression of the RAR beta gene is specific for the mesenchyme around developing eyes and nose, whereas the RAR gamma gene is expressed in the mesenchyme differentiating to facial cartilages and bones. In contrast, the RAR alpha gene is expressed weakly and uniformly over the facial region. These results suggest that crucial roles of endogenous RA in facial development depend on differential functions of the RAR subtypes.
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              Myopia in the eye of developing chicks following monocular and binocular lid closure

               U. Yinon,  L. Rose,  A. Shapiro (1980)

                Author and article information

                Ophthalmic Res
                Ophthalmic Research
                S. Karger AG
                December 1998
                05 October 1998
                : 30
                : 6
                : 361-367
                a Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, and b Division of Molecular Biology, Institute for Medical and Dental Engineering, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan
                55496 Ophthalmic Res 1998;30:361–367
                © 1998 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, References: 32, Pages: 7
                Original Paper


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