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      Perissodactyl diversities and responses to climate changes as reflected by dental homogeneity during the Cenozoic in Asia

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          Abstract

          Cenozoic mammal evolution and faunal turnover are considered to have been influenced and triggered by global climate change. Teeth of large terrestrial ungulates are reliable proxies to trace long‐term climatic changes due to their morphological and physicochemical properties; however, the role of premolar molarization in ungulate evolution and related climatic change has rarely been investigated. Recently, three patterns of premolar molarization among perissodactyls have been recognized: endoprotocrista‐derived hypocone (type I); paraconule–protocone separation (type II); and metaconule‐derived pseudohypocone (type III). These three patterns of premolar molarization play an important role in perissodactyl diversity coupled with global climate change during the Cenozoic in Asia. Those groups with a relatively higher degree of premolar molarization, initiated by the formation of the hypocone, survived into Neogene, whereas those with a lesser degree of molarization, initiated by the deformation of existing ridges and cusps, went extinct by the end of the Oligocene. In addition, the hypothesis of the “Ulan Gochu Decline” is proposed here to designate the most conspicuous decrease of perissodactyl diversity that occurred in the latest middle Eocene rather than at the Eocene–Oligocene transition in Asia, as conventionally thought; this event was likely comparable to the contemporaneous post‐Uintan decline of the North American land fauna.

          Abstract

          Three patterns of premolar molarization play an important role in perissodactyl diversity coupled with global climate change during the Cenozoic in Asia. In addition, the hypothesis of the “Ulan Gochu Decline” is proposed to designate the most conspicuous decrease of perissodactyl diversity that occurred in the latest middle Eocene rather than at the Eocene–Oligocene transition in Asia, as conventionally thought.

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          Trends, rhythms, and aberrations in global climate 65 Ma to present.

          Since 65 million years ago (Ma), Earth's climate has undergone a significant and complex evolution, the finer details of which are now coming to light through investigations of deep-sea sediment cores. This evolution includes gradual trends of warming and cooling driven by tectonic processes on time scales of 10(5) to 10(7) years, rhythmic or periodic cycles driven by orbital processes with 10(4)- to 10(6)-year cyclicity, and rare rapid aberrant shifts and extreme climate transients with durations of 10(3) to 10(5) years. Here, recent progress in defining the evolution of global climate over the Cenozoic Era is reviewed. We focus primarily on the periodic and anomalous components of variability over the early portion of this era, as constrained by the latest generation of deep-sea isotope records. We also consider how this improved perspective has led to the recognition of previously unforeseen mechanisms for altering climate.
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            On the relationship between hypsodonty and feeding ecology in ungulate mammals, and its utility in palaeoecology.

            High-crowned (hypsodont) teeth are widely found among both extant and extinct mammalian herbivores. Extant grazing ungulates (hoofed mammals) have hypsodont teeth (a derived condition), and so extinct hypsodont forms have usually been presumed to have been grazers. Thus, hypsodonty among ungulates has, over the past 150 years, formed the basis of widespread palaeoecological interpretations, and has figured prominently in the evolutionary study of the spread of grasslands in the mid Cenozoic. However, perceived inconsistencies between levels of hypsodonty and dental wear patterns in both extant and extinct ungulates have caused some workers to reject hypsodonty as a useful predictive tool in palaeobiology, a view that we consider both misguided and premature. Despite the acknowledged association between grazing and hypsodonty, the quantitative relationship of hypsodonty to the known ecology of living ungulate species, critical in making interpretations of the fossil record, was little studied until the past two decades. Also, much of the literature on ungulate ecology relevant to understanding hypsodonty has yet to be fully incorporated into the perspectives of palaeontologists. Here we review the history and current state of our knowledge of the relationship between hypsodonty and ungulate ecology, and reassert the value of hypsodonty for our understanding of ungulate feeding behaviour. We also show how soil consumption, rather than the consumption of grass plants per se, may be the missing piece of the puzzle in understanding the observed correlation between diets, habitats, and hypsodonty in ungulates. Additionally, we show how hypsodonty may impact life-history strategies, and resolve some controversies regarding the relevance of hypsodonty to the prediction of the diets of extinct species. This in turn strengthens the utility of hypsodonty in the determination of past environmental conditions, and we provide a revised view of a traditional example of evolutionary trends in palaeobiology, that of the evolution of hypsodonty in horses and its correlation with the Miocene spread of grasslands in North America. © 2011 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2011 Cambridge Philosophical Society.
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              Ancient proteins resolve the evolutionary history of Darwin's South American ungulates.

              No large group of recently extinct placental mammals remains as evolutionarily cryptic as the approximately 280 genera grouped as 'South American native ungulates'. To Charles Darwin, who first collected their remains, they included perhaps the 'strangest animal[s] ever discovered'. Today, much like 180 years ago, it is no clearer whether they had one origin or several, arose before or after the Cretaceous/Palaeogene transition 66.2 million years ago, or are more likely to belong with the elephants and sirenians of superorder Afrotheria than with the euungulates (cattle, horses, and allies) of superorder Laurasiatheria. Morphology-based analyses have proved unconvincing because convergences are pervasive among unrelated ungulate-like placentals. Approaches using ancient DNA have also been unsuccessful, probably because of rapid DNA degradation in semitropical and temperate deposits. Here we apply proteomic analysis to screen bone samples of the Late Quaternary South American native ungulate taxa Toxodon (Notoungulata) and Macrauchenia (Litopterna) for phylogenetically informative protein sequences. For each ungulate, we obtain approximately 90% direct sequence coverage of type I collagen α1- and α2-chains, representing approximately 900 of 1,140 amino-acid residues for each subunit. A phylogeny is estimated from an alignment of these fossil sequences with collagen (I) gene transcripts from available mammalian genomes or mass spectrometrically derived sequence data obtained for this study. The resulting consensus tree agrees well with recent higher-level mammalian phylogenies. Toxodon and Macrauchenia form a monophyletic group whose sister taxon is not Afrotheria or any of its constituent clades as recently claimed, but instead crown Perissodactyla (horses, tapirs, and rhinoceroses). These results are consistent with the origin of at least some South American native ungulates from 'condylarths', a paraphyletic assembly of archaic placentals. With ongoing improvements in instrumentation and analytical procedures, proteomics may produce a revolution in systematics such as that achieved by genomics, but with the possibility of reaching much further back in time.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                baibin@ivpp.ac.cn
                Journal
                Ecol Evol
                Ecol Evol
                10.1002/(ISSN)2045-7758
                ECE3
                Ecology and Evolution
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                2045-7758
                10 June 2020
                July 2020
                : 10
                : 13 ( doiID: 10.1002/ece3.v10.13 )
                : 6333-6355
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins of Chinese Academy of Sciences Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing China
                [ 2 ] CAS Center for Excellence in Life and Paleoenvironment Beijing China
                [ 3 ] Division of Paleontology American Museum of Natural History New York NY USA
                [ 4 ] Earth and Environmental Sciences Graduate Center City University of New York New York NY USA
                [ 5 ] School of Earth Sciences University of Bristol Bristol UK
                [ 6 ] Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Brown University Providence RI USA
                [ 7 ] College of Earth and Planetary Sciences University of Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing China
                Author notes
                [*] [* ] Correspondence

                Bin Bai, Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100044, China.

                Email: baibin@ 123456ivpp.ac.cn

                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4394-8689
                Article
                ECE36363
                10.1002/ece3.6363
                7381588
                32724516
                f860cb1f-b2f8-4ffb-9317-40ff71b07fbe
                © 2020 The Authors. Ecology and Evolution published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd

                This is an open access article under the terms of the http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 22 January 2020
                : 20 April 2020
                : 21 April 2020
                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 4, Pages: 23, Words: 19981
                Funding
                Funded by: China Scholarship Council
                Award ID: 201204910062
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China
                Award ID: 41672014
                Funded by: the Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences
                Award ID: XDB26000000
                Funded by: Geological Investigation Project of the China Geological Survey
                Award ID: DD20190009
                Funded by: the Frick Fund from the Division of Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History
                Funded by: Youth Innovation Promotion Association of the Chinese Academy of Sciences
                Award ID: 2017101
                Categories
                Original Research
                Original Research
                Custom metadata
                2.0
                July 2020
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_JATSPMC version:5.8.5 mode:remove_FC converted:25.07.2020

                Evolutionary Biology
                asian perissodactyl diversity,cenozoic,premolar molarization,ulan gochu decline

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