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      Arenavirus-mediated liver pathology: acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection of rhesus macaques is characterized by high-level interleukin-6 expression and hepatocyte proliferation.

      Journal of Biology
      Alanine Transaminase, blood, Animals, Arenaviridae Infections, immunology, pathology, Cell Division, Cercopithecus aethiops, Hepatocytes, virology, Interleukin-6, biosynthesis, Interleukin-8, Ki-67 Antigen, analysis, Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, Macaca mulatta, Receptors, Interleukin-6, Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha, Vero Cells

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          Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and Lassa virus can cause hemorrhagic fever and liver disease in primates. The WE strain of LCMV (LCMV-WE) causes a fatal Lassa fever-like disease in rhesus macaques and provides a model for arenavirus pathogenesis in humans. LCMV-WE delivered intravenously or intragastrically to rhesus macaques targets hepatocytes and induces high levels of liver enzymes, interleukin-6 (IL-6), soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R), and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors (sTNFRI and -II) in plasma during acute infection. Proinflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-1beta were not detected in plasma of infected animals, but increased plasma gamma interferon was noted in fatally infected animals. Immunohistochemistry of acute liver biopsies revealed that 25 to 40% of nuclei were positive for proliferation antigen Ki-67. The increases in IL-6, sIL-6R, sTNFR, and proliferation antigen that we observe are similar to the profile of incipient liver regeneration after surgical or toxic injury (N. Fausto, Am. J. Physiol. 277:G917-G921, 1999). Although IL-6 was not directly induced by virus infection in vitro, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from acutely infected monkeys produced higher levels of IL-6 upon lipopolysaccharide stimulation than did healthy controls. Our data confirm that acute infection is associated with weak inflammatory responses in tissues and initiates a program of liver regeneration in primates.

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