The surprising discovery of Cycladiacampa irakleiae, a new genus and species, a cave-adapted campodeid dipluran highlights the paleobiogeographical importance of the insular Aegean cave-ecosystems. This new dipluran genus inhabits with other noticeable endemic cave-adapted invertebrate species in the isolated Spilaio Agiou Ioanni cave in Irakleia, a small island in the centre of the Cyclades Archipelago. C. irakleiae gen. nov. et sp. nov. is related with Stygiocampa species, a subgenus of Plusiocampa genus, with hereto six cave-adapted species inhabiting karst areas in Dinaric and the Rhopode Mountains. These species share similarities such as the absence of mesonotal and metanotal macrosetae, the abundance and shape of urosternal macrosetae, as well as the lack of medial posterior macrosetae on mesonotum and metanotum. This can be explained by a common ancestor that probably originated from Asia and expanded its distribution to the fragmented Europe since the Eocene-Oligocene, colonizing cave habitats in recent periods. Cycladiacampa irakleiae is a remarkable addition to the fauna of the cave of Irakleia and should raise awareness on the need to enhance the study and conservation of the cave’s natural heritage.