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      Multiple Ligand-Ion Solutions: A Guide for Solution Preparation and Computer Program Understanding

      Journal of Vascular Research

      S. Karger AG

      Solutions, Ligands, Buffers, Ions

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          Abstract

          This paper first gives an overview of the multitude of chemical reactions taking place in aqueous solutions with multiple ligands and ions. Then, recommendations to avoid pitfalls in preparing such solutions in daily laboratory work are summarized. Thereafter, the theoretical aspects for calculating multiple ligand-ion solutions are described in detail. Information necessary to perform corrections of the absolute stability constants for the influences of pH, ionic strength, and temperature are given. The calculation of apparent reaction constants for ligand-ion interactions by using the corrected absolute stability constants and considering all possible reactions between a ligand and an ion in an aqueous solution will be introduced. Thereafter, by employing the apparent reaction constants and an iterative method, the determination of multiple ligand-ion equilibria to find the desired ligand or ion concentrations are presented. Thus, this paper can be used as a guide to the principles of programs calculating multiple ligand-ion solutions, to choosing the appropriate program for one’s special requirements, and to preparing multiple ligand-ion solutions properly.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          JVR
          J Vasc Res
          10.1159/issn.1018-1172
          Journal of Vascular Research
          S. Karger AG
          1018-1172
          1423-0135
          1996
          1996
          24 September 2008
          : 33
          : 1
          : 86-98
          Affiliations
          Institute of Physiology, University of Rostock, Germany
          Article
          159136 J Vasc Res 1996;33:86–98
          10.1159/000159136
          8603132
          © 1996 S. Karger AG, Basel

          Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

          Page count
          Pages: 13
          Categories
          Methods Paper

          General medicine, Neurology, Cardiovascular Medicine, Internal medicine, Nephrology

          Ions, Solutions, Ligands, Buffers

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