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      Introducing the biogeographic species pool

      , , , ,

      Ecography

      Wiley-Blackwell

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          Most cited references 85

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          Modularity and community structure in networks

           M. Newman (2006)
          Many networks of interest in the sciences, including a variety of social and biological networks, are found to divide naturally into communities or modules. The problem of detecting and characterizing this community structure has attracted considerable recent attention. One of the most sensitive detection methods is optimization of the quality function known as "modularity" over the possible divisions of a network, but direct application of this method using, for instance, simulated annealing is computationally costly. Here we show that the modularity can be reformulated in terms of the eigenvectors of a new characteristic matrix for the network, which we call the modularity matrix, and that this reformulation leads to a spectral algorithm for community detection that returns results of better quality than competing methods in noticeably shorter running times. We demonstrate the algorithm with applications to several network data sets.
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            Community structure in social and biological networks

            A number of recent studies have focused on the statistical properties of networked systems such as social networks and the World-Wide Web. Researchers have concentrated particularly on a few properties which seem to be common to many networks: the small-world property, power-law degree distributions, and network transitivity. In this paper, we highlight another property which is found in many networks, the property of community structure, in which network nodes are joined together in tightly-knit groups between which there are only looser connections. We propose a new method for detecting such communities, built around the idea of using centrality indices to find community boundaries. We test our method on computer generated and real-world graphs whose community structure is already known, and find that it detects this known structure with high sensitivity and reliability. We also apply the method to two networks whose community structure is not well-known - a collaboration network and a food web - and find that it detects significant and informative community divisions in both cases.
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              Finding and evaluating community structure in networks

               M. Newman,  M Girvan (2003)
              We propose and study a set of algorithms for discovering community structure in networks -- natural divisions of network nodes into densely connected subgroups. Our algorithms all share two definitive features: first, they involve iterative removal of edges from the network to split it into communities, the edges removed being identified using one of a number of possible "betweenness" measures, and second, these measures are, crucially, recalculated after each removal. We also propose a measure for the strength of the community structure found by our algorithms, which gives us an objective metric for choosing the number of communities into which a network should be divided. We demonstrate that our algorithms are highly effective at discovering community structure in both computer-generated and real-world network data, and show how they can be used to shed light on the sometimes dauntingly complex structure of networked systems.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ecography
                Ecography
                Wiley-Blackwell
                09067590
                December 2013
                December 2013
                : 36
                : 12
                : 1310-1318
                Article
                10.1111/j.1600-0587.2013.00329.x
                © 2013

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