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      C-Reactive Protein Induces NF-κB Activation through Intracellular Calcium and ROS in Human Mesangial Cells

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          Abstract

          Background: C-reactive protein (CRP) is known to have a direct proinflammatory effect in endothelial cells. However, little is known about the effect of CRP in intrinsic renal cells. We investigated the effects of CRP on the nuclear factor-ĸB (NF-ĸB) activation and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) gene expression in human mesangial cells and also examined whether intracellular calcium and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were involved in the CRP- induced NF-ĸB activation. Methods: NF-ĸB binding activity and MCP-1 mRNA expression were measured by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and Northern blot analysis, respectively.Intracellular calcium was monitored by confocal microscopy using calcium sensitive dye, Fluo-3 and intracellular ROS production was determined, using 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescin diacetate. Results: CRP increased NF-ĸB binding activity in a dose-dependent manner (12.5–100 µg/ml), which was induced within 1 h after incubation and peaked around 3 h. CRP also increased the MCP-1 mRNA expression via activation of NF-ĸB. Both intracellular calcium and ROS was induced by CRP. Calcium chelator, BAPTA-AM and anti-oxidants such as N-acetylcysteine and tiron suppressed CRP-induced NF-ĸB activation. Conclusion: CRP exerted a proinflammatory effect in human mesangial cells by inducing MCP-1 gene expression via NF-ĸB activation, which was mediated, at least in part, through intracellular calcium and ROS.

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          Most cited references 16

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          Demonstration that C-reactive protein decreases eNOS expression and bioactivity in human aortic endothelial cells.

          C-reactive protein (CRP), the prototypic marker of inflammation, has been shown to be an independent predictor of cardiovascular events. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) deficiency is a pivotal event in atherogenesis. We tested the effect of CRP on eNOS expression and bioactivity in cultured human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). CRP decreased eNOS mRNA, protein abundance, and enzyme activity in HAECs. Furthermore, eNOS bioactivity assayed by cyclic GMP levels was significantly reduced by CRP. Preincubation of cells with CRP also significantly increased the adhesion of monocytes to HAECs. CRP causes a direct reduction in eNOS expression and bioactivity in HAECs, further supporting its role in atherogenesis.
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            Endothelin antagonism and interleukin-6 inhibition attenuate the proatherogenic effects of C-reactive protein.

            C-reactive protein (CRP) has been suggested to actively participate in the development of atherosclerosis. In the present study, we examined the role of the potent endothelium-derived vasoactive factor endothelin-1 (ET-1) and the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) as mediators of CRP-induced proatherogenic processes. Saphenous vein endothelial cells (HSVECs) were incubated with human recombinant CRP (25 microg/mL, 24 hours) and the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1), intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1), and monocyte chemoattractant chemokine-1 was determined. The effects of CRP on LDL uptake were assessed in macrophages using immunofluorescent labeling of CD32 and CD14. In each study, the effect of endothelin antagonism (bosentan) and IL-6 inhibition (monoclonal anti-IL-6 antibodies) was examined. The effects of CRP on the secretion of ET-1 and IL-6 from HSVECs were also evaluated. Incubation of HSVECs with recombinant human CRP resulted in a marked increase in ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression (P<0.001). Likewise, CRP caused a significant increase in monocyte chemoattractant chemokine-1 production, a key mediator of leukocyte transmigration (P<0.001). CRP caused a marked and sustained increase in native LDL uptake by macrophages (P<0.05). These proatherosclerotic effects of CRP were mediated, in part, via increased secretion of ET-1 and IL-6 (P<0.01) and were attenuated by both bosentan and IL-6 antagonism (P<0.01). CRP actively promotes a proatherosclerotic and proinflammatory phenotype. These effects are mediated, in part, via the production of ET-1 and IL-6 and are attenuated by mixed ET(A/B) receptor antagonism and IL-6 inhibition. Bosentan may be useful in decreasing CRP-mediated vascular disease.
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              Costimulation of fibroblast collagen and transforming growth factor beta1 gene expression by monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 via specific receptors.

              Recent studies indicate potential roles of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) in recruitment of monocytes to sites of inflammation. However, their increased expression does not always correlate with monocyte influx, suggesting other possible biological activities for this member of the C-C chemokine family. In view of its potential role in regulating extracellular matrix expression in fibrotic disorders, the effects of MCP-1 on lung fibroblast collagen expression were evaluated. Isolated rat lung fibroblasts were treated with increasing doses of MCP-1 for variable periods of time and examined for effects on collagen synthesis and expression of procollagen alpha1(I) mRNA expression. The results show that MCP-1 was able to stimulate collagen expression in these cells in a dose-dependent manner but required over 24 h for significant elevation to occur. In view of this delayed time course, the possibility of mediation via endogenous transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) was tested by the ability of anti-TGFbeta antibody to inhibit this MCP-1 stimulation of collagen expression. Significant but incomplete inhibition by this antibody was observed. Pretreatment of the cells with antisense but not by sense or missense TGFbeta1 oligodeoxyribonucleotides caused essentially complete inhibition of this MCP-1 stimulatory effect. Furthermore, MCP-1 treatment was found to also stimulate TGFbeta secretion and mRNA expression, which was also abolished by pretreatment with antisense TGFbeta1 oligodeoxyribonucleotides. The kinetics of TGFbeta expression indicates that significant increase preceded that for collagen expression. Binding studies using 125I-labeled MCP-1 indicated the presence of specific and saturable binding sites with a dissociation constant consistent with the dose response curves for stimulation of fibroblast collagen synthesis and TGFbeta activity by MCP-1. These results taken together suggest that MCP-1 stimulates fibroblast collagen expression via specific receptors and endogenous up-regulation of TGFbeta expression. The latter then results in autocrine and/or juxtacrine stimulation of collagen gene expression.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEE
                Nephron Exp Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.1660-2129
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2129
                2005
                December 2005
                30 August 2005
                : 101
                : 4
                : e165-e172
                Affiliations
                Department of Internal Medicine, Urology and Asan Institute for Life Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Seoul, South Korea
                Article
                87940 Nephron Exp Nephrol 2005;101:e165–e172
                10.1159/000087940
                16131811
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 8, References: 32, Pages: 1
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/87940
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