0
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      The influence of genetic polymorphisms in drug metabolism enzymes and transporters on the pharmacokinetics of different fluvastatin formulations

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of genetic polymorphism on fluvastatin pharmacokinetics. In addition, we compared the fluvastatin pharmacokinetics differences between extended-release (ER) 80 mg tablet and immediate-release (IR) 40 mg capsule in terms of drug metabolism enzyme and transporter genetic polymorphisms. In this open-label, randomized, two-period, two-treatment, crossover study ( n = 24), effects of ABCG2, SLCO1B1, ABCB1, CYP2C9 and CYP3A5 polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics of fluvastatin were analyzed. The administration dosage for IR 40 mg and ER 80 mg were twice and once daily, respectively, for total 7 d. Blood samples for pharmacokinetic evaluation were taken on the 1st and 7th d. The lower exposure following ER was observed. For ER tablets, SLCO1B1 T521C genotype correlated with AUC 0-24 of repeat doses ( P = 0.010). SLCO1B1 T521C genotype had no statistically significant effect on AUC 0-24 of IR capsule of fluvastatin after single or repeated doses. In vitro study demonstrated that when the concentration of fluvastatin was low (< 1 µmol/l), the uptake of fluvastatin in the HEK293-OATP1B1 with SLCO1B1 521TT ( K m =0.18 µmol/l) was faster than that with SLCO1B1 521CC ( K m =0.49 µmol/l), On the other hand, when concentration reached to higher level (> 1 µmol/l), transport velocity of fluvastatin by HEK293-OATP1B1 with SLCO1B1 521TT ( K m  = 11.4 µmol/l) and with SLCO1B1 521TCC ( K m =15.1 µmol/l) tend to be the same. It suggests that the increased effect of SLCO1B1 T521C genotype on ER formulation of fluvastatin was mainly caused by lower blood concentrations. We recommend that formulation should be incorporated into future pharmacogenomics studies.

          Graphical abstract

          Related collections

          Most cited references 20

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Pharmacokinetic comparison of the potential over-the-counter statins simvastatin, lovastatin, fluvastatin and pravastatin.

          HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) dose-dependently lower both the level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and risk of cardiovascular disease. In 2004, the UK approved a low-dose over-the-counter (OTC) simvastatin, but the US has rejected applications for non-prescription preparations of statins. The pharmacokinetics and interaction potentials of the possible OTC candidate statins simvastatin, lovastatin, fluvastatin and pravastatin are clearly different. Simvastatin and lovastatin are mainly metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A, fluvastatin is metabolized by CYP2C9, and pravastatin is excreted largely unchanged. Several cell membrane transporters can influence the disposition of statins, e.g. the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1 enhances their hepatic uptake. The c.521T>C (p.Val174Ala) genetic polymorphism of SLCO1B1 (encoding OATP1B1) considerably increases the plasma concentrations of simvastatin acid and moderately increases those of pravastatin but seems to have no significant effect on fluvastatin. Strong inhibitors of CYP3A (itraconazole, ritonavir) greatly (up to 20-fold) increase plasma concentrations of simvastatin, lovastatin and their active acid forms, thus enhancing the risk of myotoxicity. Weak or moderately potent CYP3A inhibitors such as verapamil, diltiazem and grapefruit juice can be used cautiously with low doses of simvastatin or lovastatin, but their concomitant use needs medical supervision. Potent inducers of CYP3A can greatly decrease plasma concentrations of simvastatin and simvastatin acid, and probably those of lovastatin and lovastatin acid. Although fluvastatin is metabolized by CYP2C9, its concentrations are changed less than 2-fold by inhibitors or inducers of CYP2C9. Pravastatin plasma concentrations are not significantly affected by any CYP inhibition and only slightly affected by inducers. Ciclosporin inhibits CYP3A, P-glycoprotein and OATP1B1. Gemfibrozil and its glucuronide inhibit CYP2C8 and OATP1B1. Ciclosporin and gemfibrozil increase plasma concentrations of statins and the risk of their myotoxicity, but fluvastatin seems to carry a smaller risk than other statins. Inhibitors of OATP1B1 may decrease the benefit-risk ratio of simvastatin, lovastatin and pravastatin by interfering with their (active acid forms) entry into hepatocytes. Understanding the differences in the pharmacokinetics and interaction potential of various statins helps in their selection for possible non-prescription status. On the pharmacokinetic basis, fluvastatin and pravastatin can be better choices than simvastatin or lovastatin for an OTC statin.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            SLCO1B1 polymorphism and sex affect the pharmacokinetics of pravastatin but not fluvastatin.

            Pravastatin is a hydrophilic substrate and fluvastatin a lipophilic substrate of the hepatic uptake transporter organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 encoded by SLCO1B1. Our aim was to compare the effects of SLCO1B1 polymorphism on the pharmacokinetics of pravastatin and fluvastatin. We recruited 4 healthy volunteers (3 men and 1 woman) with the homozygous SLCO1B1 c.521CC genotype, 12 (7 men and 5 women) with the heterozygous c.521TC genotype, and 16 (8 men and 8 women) with the homozygous c.521TT genotype (control subjects). In a crossover study each subject ingested a single 40-mg dose of fluvastatin and pravastatin with a washout period of at least 1 week. Plasma fluvastatin and pravastatin concentrations were measured for 12 hours. In men with the c.521CC genotype, the mean peak concentration in plasma and area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity of pravastatin were 274% (95% confidence interval [CI], 92%-456%; P = .001) and 232% (95% CI, 74%-391%; P = .002) greater than those in men with the c.521TT genotype and 120% (95% CI, 11%-230%; P = .026) and 102% (95% CI, 3%-200%; P = .040) greater than those in men with the c.521TC genotype. In addition, women with the c.521TT genotype had a 147% (95% CI, 12%-281%; P = .028) greater peak concentration in plasma and a 142% (95% CI, 7%-242%; P = .034) greater area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity than men with the c.521TT genotype. The pharmacokinetic variables of pravastatin were approximately similar among women with different SLCO1B1 genotypes. No significant differences were seen in the pharmacokinetics of fluvastatin between subjects with different SLCO1B1 genotypes or between the sexes. SLCO1B1 polymorphism has a large effect on the pharmacokinetics of pravastatin but not fluvastatin. This suggests that the lipophilic fluvastatin can penetrate the hepatocyte plasma membrane via passive diffusion or that uptake transporters other than organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 mainly mediate its hepatic uptake. Moreover, the results suggest that sex may affect the pharmacokinetics of pravastatin and possibly the functional consequences of SLCO1B1 polymorphism.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              An association study of 43 SNPs in 16 candidate genes with atorvastatin response.

              Variation in individual response to statin therapy has been widely studied for a potential genetic component. Multiple genes have been identified as potential modulators of statin response, but few study findings have replicated. To further examine these associations, 2735 individuals on statin therapy, half on atorvastatin and the other half divided among fluvastatin, lovastatin, pravastatin and simvastatin were genotyped for 43 SNPs in 16 genes that have been implicated in statin response. Associations with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering, total cholesterol lowering, HDL-C elevation and triglyceride lowering were examined. The only significant associations with LDL-C lowering were found with apoE2 in which carriers of the rare allele who took atorvastatin lowered their LDL-C by 3.5% more than those homozygous for the common allele and with rs2032582 (S893A in ABCB1) in which the two groups of homozygotes differed by 3% in LDL-C lowering. These genetic effects were smaller than those observed with the demographic variables of age and gender. The magnitude of all the differences found is sufficiently small that genetic data from these genes should not influence clinical decisions on statin administration.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Asian J Pharm Sci
                Asian J Pharm Sci
                Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
                Shenyang Pharmaceutical University
                1818-0876
                2221-285X
                26 July 2019
                March 2020
                26 July 2019
                : 15
                : 2
                : 264-272
                Affiliations
                [a ]Department of Pharmacy, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing 100034, China
                [b ]State Key Laboratory of Drug Release Technology and Pharmacokinetics, Tianjin Institute of Pharmaceutical Research, Tianjin 300193,China
                [c ]School of Pharmaceutical Science, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding authors. Department of Pharmacy, Peking University First Hospital, No. 6, Dahongluochang Street, Xicheng District, Beijing 100034, China. Tel: +86 10 66110802 03610@ 123456pkufh.com cui.pharm@ 123456pkufh.com
                Article
                S1818-0876(19)30292-2
                10.1016/j.ajps.2019.06.002
                7193447
                © 2019 Shenyang Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V.

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                Categories
                Research article

                Comments

                Comment on this article