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      Contractility and Endothelium-Dependent Relaxation of Resistance Vessels in Polycystic Kidney Disease Rats

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          Abstract

          Hypertension and vascular disease are common complications in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). The role of changes in morphology and reactivity of resistance vessels in this disease have not previously been studied. Mesenteric resistance arteries were dissected from 8- to 14-week-old heterozygous Han:SPRD polycystic kidney disease (PKD) rats, homozygous normal Han:SPRD littermates (HSPRD) and Sprague-Dawley rats (SD). The morphology, noradrenaline (NA) contractility, endothelium-dependent acetylcholine (ACh) relaxation before and after incubation with L<sup>G</sup>-nitro- L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), and endothelium-independent 3-morphollino-sydnonimine (SIN-1) relaxation were studied with the Mulvany-Halpern myograph. Blood pressure and morphology of vessels were the same in all groups of rats, apart from a slightly higher media/lumen ratio in heterozygous PKD rats (p < 0.05). Active wall tension and contractile sensitivity to NA were higher in both heterozygous PKD rats and HSPRD than SD rats (p < 0.05). The maximum endothelium-dependent relaxation rate was markedly decreased in heterozygous PKD (19 ± 9%) and HSPRD (34 ± 12%) compared to SD rats (75 ± 11%) (p < 0.05). After incubation with L-NAME, ACh-induced relaxation was significantly attenuated in SD rats, less attenuated in HSPRD, and not significantly changed in heterozygous PKD rats. SIN-1-induced endothelium-independent relaxation was similar in all three groups. In conclusion, hyperreactivity to NA and impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation were present in resistance vessels from Han:SPRD rats, especially in animals with PKD. These abnormalities in resistance vessels from PKD rats may be important for the development of hypertension and vascular disease.

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          The pathogenesis of hypertension in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

          Hypertension is a common and serious complication of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), often occurring early in the disease before the renal function starts to decrease. The pathogenesis of this early hypertension is controversial. To review studies on the pathogenesis of early and late hypertension in ADPKD. Studies on ADPKD and hypertension were retrieved from Medline from the last 20 years, with an emphasis on the last 10 years. These studies, together with selected published abstracts from recent hypertension and nephrology meetings, were reviewed critically. Cyst growth, renal handling of sodium, activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, volume expansion, an elevated plasma volume, and increased plasma atrial natriuretic peptide and plasma endothelin levels have all been found to be associated with hypertension in ADPKD. In some studies an inappropriate activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system that could be related to cyst growth and intrarenal ischemia was found. An increase in renal vascular resistance has been demonstrated and might be caused by intrarenal release of angiotensin II. Interestingly, the protective effect of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors on the renal function could not be demonstrated in ADPKD patients with a moderately decreased renal function. The importance, if any, of endothelial vasodilatory factors is not known. Sympathetic nervous activity seems to be increased in ADPKD, but the importance of this for the blood pressure level is not known. The pathogenesis of hypertension in ADPKD is complex and likely to be dependent on the interaction of hemodynamic, endocrine and neurogenic factors.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            JVR
            J Vasc Res
            10.1159/issn.1018-1172
            Journal of Vascular Research
            S. Karger AG
            1018-1172
            1423-0135
            1999
            December 1999
            24 December 1999
            : 36
            : 6
            : 502-509
            Affiliations
            Departments of aNephrology and bClinical Physiology, Herlev Hospital, University Hospital of Copenhagen, Denmark
            Article
            25693 J Vasc Res 1999;36:502–509
            10.1159/000025693
            10629426
            © 1999 S. Karger AG, Basel

            Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

            Page count
            Figures: 4, Tables: 3, References: 27, Pages: 8
            Categories
            Research Paper

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