Aims: Reactive oxygen species have been implicated in increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1) levels in vascular cells, which may promote atherosclerosis progression. Methods: We studied the association between pre-dialysis plasma levels of VEGF and MCP-1 in 45 hemodialysis (HD) patients with and without cardiovascular disease (CVD) in conditions of increased oxidative stress (SOX). Results: Compared to the controls, HD patients, especially those with CVD, showed a significant increase in plasma concentrations of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD), C-reactive protein (CRP), MCP-1 and VEGF. The levels of CRP, MCP-1 and VEGF were more increased in patients with CVD than in patients without CVD (all p < 0.01). VEGF strongly and positively correlated with MCP-1 only in HD patients with CVD. Additionally, both VEGF and MCP-1 were associated with Cu/Zn SOD in the whole HD group. Conclusion: For the first time our data indicate a correlation between VEGF and MCP-1 levels in HD patients with CVD in conditions of increased SOX. This interaction may reflect the new role of MCP-1 as an arteriogenic factor in HD patients with CVD.