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      Children with Septo-Optic Dysplasia – How to Improve and Sharpen the Diagnosis

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          Abstract

          The data in this article are based on investigations performed in 25 children with suspected septo-optic dysplasia (SOD). There are many signs and methods that help in the diagnosis of SOD. In particular, the ocular fundus, abnormalities of the hypothalamo-pituitary axis and other midline brain structures should be described. In order to achieve a more holistic and functional diagnosis, the degree of neurological, neuropsychiatric and psychological involvement should also be stated. It has been suggested that SOD is associated with autosomal recessive inheritance, and it can be speculated that it is the result of genetic and environmental influences early in gestation. An early diagnosis can favourably influence the outcome of the affected child.

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          Mutations in the homeobox gene HESX1/Hesx1 associated with septo-optic dysplasia in human and mouse.

          During early mouse development the homeobox gene Hesx1 is expressed in prospective forebrain tissue, but later becomes restricted to Rathke's pouch, the primordium of the anterior pituitary gland. Mice lacking Hesx1 exhibit variable anterior CNS defects and pituitary dysplasia. Mutants have a reduced prosencephalon, anopthalmia or micropthalmia, defective olfactory development and bifurcations in Rathke's pouch. Neonates exhibit abnormalities in the corpus callosum, the anterior and hippocampal commissures, and the septum pellucidum. A comparable and equally variable phenotype in humans is septo-optic dysplasia (SOD). We have cloned human HESX1 and screened for mutations in affected individuals. Two siblings with SOD were homozygous for an Arg53Cys missense mutation within the HESX1 homeodomain which destroyed its ability to bind target DNA. These data suggest an important role for Hesx1/HESX1 in forebrain, midline and pituitary development in mouse and human.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            HRE
            Horm Res Paediatr
            10.1159/issn.1663-2818
            Hormone Research in Paediatrics
            S. Karger AG
            978-3-8055-7097-8
            978-3-318-00598-1
            1663-2818
            1663-2826
            2000
            July 2000
            17 November 2004
            : 53
            : Suppl 1
            : 19-25
            Affiliations
            aGöteborg Paediatric Growth Research Centre, Department of Paediatrics; bSection of Ophthalmology, Department of Clinical Neuroscience; cChild Neurology, Department of Paediatrics, and Departments of dNeuropsychiatry and eRadiology, Queen Silvia Children’s Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden
            Article
            53200 Horm Res 2000;53(suppl 1):19–25
            10.1159/000053200
            10895038
            © 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

            Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

            Page count
            Figures: 6, Tables: 1, References: 25, Pages: 7
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