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      Electrocardiographic Pattern as a Guide for Management and Radiofrequency Ablation of Idiopathic Ventricular Tachycardia

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          Abstract

          Background: Idiopathic ventricular tachycardia (VT) often originates from the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT), but foci deep to the endocardium, in the epicardium, or in the left ventricle are not uncommon. Although these extra-RVOT foci can be targeted with ablation, risks involved are higher and success rates lower. Simple electrocardiographic (ECG) criteria allowing (1) discrimination of RVOT foci from extra-RVOT foci and (2) assessment of the chance of success of a right heart ablation procedure are desirable. Methods: Twenty-five consecutive patients referred for radiofrequency (RF) ablation of idiopathic VT or severely symptomatic idiopathic ventricular premature contractions were included. Localization of VT origin and success rates of VT ablation in the RVOT were analyzed according to the ECG pattern. Results: The analysis of the R wave in V2 was the strongest single predictor of whether the VT had an RVOT or an extra-RVOT origin. An R wave amplitude ≤30% of the QRS amplitude designated the VT focus in the RVOT with positive and negative predictive values of 95 and 100%, respectively. Analysis of R wave duration in V2 had similar predictive values, whereas the R/S transition zone in precordial leads had slightly lower predictive values. Seventeen of 20 arrhythmias (85%) with an R wave amplitude ≤30% of the QRS amplitude in V2 could be successfully abolished by an exclusively right heart procedure. Conclusions: The analysis of ECG pattern makes it possible to guide the management of patients with idiopathic VT in predicting the arrhythmias that can be safely targeted with RF ablation from the RVOT with high success rates.

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          Most cited references 10

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          Radiofrequency catheter ablation as a cure for idiopathic tachycardia of both left and right ventricular origin.

          The purpose of this study was 1) to investigate the efficacy and safety of radiofrequency energy catheter ablation as curative treatment for idiopathic tachycardia of both left and right ventricular origin, and 2) to compare the usefulness of different methods used to map the site of origin of idiopathic ventricular tachycardia. Percutaneous radiofrequency catheter ablation has been used with dramatic success in the treatment of patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, atrioventricular node reentrant tachycardia and bundle branch reentrant tachycardia. Limited data are available on the use of radiofrequency energy catheter ablation as curative treatment for idiopathic tachycardia of both left and right ventricular origin. Twenty-eight consecutive patients (13 to 71 years old) presenting with idiopathic ventricular tachycardia were enrolled in the study. The site of origin of both left and right ventricular tachycardia was mapped using earliest endocardial activation times during tachycardia and by pace mapping. These mapping techniques were compared. Radiofrequency ablation was successful in all eight patients (100%) with left ventricular tachycardia. Tachycardia recurred in one patient. The ablation procedure was complicated by mild aortic insufficiency in one patient. Right ventricular outflow tract tachycardia was successfully ablated in 17 (85%) of 20 patients. The success rate at follow-up was 85%. In one patient, the ablation procedure was complicated by acute ventricular perforation and death. Pace maps from successful ablation sites were better than pace maps from unsuccessful sites (p < 0.004). Endocardial activation times at successful ablation sites were not different from unsuccessful sites (p < 0.13). Radiofrequency catheter ablation is an effective treatment for idiopathic ventricular tachycardia. The site of origin of tachycardia is best identified using pace mapping. Significant complications can occur and should be considered in the risk/benefit analysis for each patient.
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            Development and validation of an ECG algorithm for identifying the optimal ablation site for idiopathic ventricular outflow tract tachycardia.

            Idiopathic ventricular outflow tract tachycardia or premature ventricular contractions (OT-VTs) can originate from several different sites in the outflow tract, including the left ventricular (LV) endocardium and epicardium. The aims of this study were (1) to develop an ECG algorithm to predict the origin of OT-VT and (2) to test prospectively the accuracy of the algorithm. An algorithm was developed by correlating the 12-lead ECG findings with the catheter ablation site in 80 patients with OT-VT. The ECG characteristics of the QRS complex during the arrhythmia were analyzed. The catheter sites were verified by multi-plane fluoroscopy. The outflow tract was classified into six subdivisions: right ventricular (RV) septum, RV free wall, RV near the His-bundle region, LV endocardium, left sinus of Valsalva (LSV), and LV epicardium remote from the LSV. An OT-VT originating from the LV epicardium remote from the LSV was defined as an OT-VT in which the earliest ventricular activation was recorded at the LSV and radiofrequency ablation from the LSV failed. This algorithm subsequently was tested prospectively in 88 patients. Overall sensitivity was 88% and specificity was 95%. The positive and negative predictive values were 88% and 96%, respectively. We describe a new ECG algorithm having a high sensitivity and specificity to identify the optimal ablation site for idiopathic ventricular outflow tachycardia or premature ventricular contractions.
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              Repetitive monomorphic tachycardia from the left ventricular outflow tract: electrocardiographic patterns consistent with a left ventricular site of origin.

              This study sought to characterize the electrocardiographic patterns predictive of left ventricular sites of origin of repetitive monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (RMVT). RMVT typically arises from the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) in patients without structural heart disease. The incidence of left ventricular sites of origin in this syndrome is unknown. Detailed endocardial mapping of the RVOT was performed in 33 consecutive patients with RMVT during attempted radiofrequency ablation. Left ventricular mapping was also performed if pace maps obtained from the RVOT did not reproduce the configuration of the induced tachycardia. Pace maps identical in configuration to the induced tachycardia were obtained from the RVOT in 29 of 33 patients. Application of radiofrequency energy at sites guided by pace mapping resulted in elimination of RMVT in 24 (83%) of 29 patients. In four patients (12%), pace maps obtained from the RVOT did not match the induced tachycardia. All four patients had a QRS configuration during RMVT with precordial R wave transitions at or before lead V2. In two patients, RMVT was mapped to the mediosuperior aspect of the mitral valve annulus, near the left fibrous trigone; catheter ablation at that site was successful in both. In two patients, RMVT was mapped to the basal aspect of the superior left ventricular septum. Catheter ablation was not attempted because His bundle deflections were recorded from this site during sinus rhythm. RMVT can arise from the outflow tract of both the right and left ventricles. RMVTs with a precordial R wave transition at or before lead V2 are consistent with a left ventricular origin.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2005
                November 2004
                24 November 2004
                : 103
                : 1
                : 30-36
                Affiliations
                Swiss Cardiovascular Center Bern, University Hospital, Bern, Switzerland
                Article
                81849 Cardiology 2005;103:30–36
                10.1159/000081849
                15528898
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 1, References: 15, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology

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