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      Topmouth culter melanocortin-3 receptor: regulation by two isoforms of melanocortin-2 receptor accessory protein 2


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          Melanocortin-3 receptor (MC3R) is a regulator of energy homeostasis, and interaction of MC3R and melanocortin-2 receptor accessory protein 2 (MRAP2) plays a critical role in MC3R signaling of mammals. However, the physiological roles of MC3R in teleosts are not well understood. In this study, qRT-PCR was used to measure gene expression. Radioligand binding assay was used to study the binding properties of topmouth culter MC3R (caMC3R). Intracellular cAMP generation was determined by RIA, and caMC3R expression was quantified with flow cytometry. We showed that culter mc3r had higher expression in the CNS. All agonists could bind and stimulate caMC3R to increase dose dependently intracellular cAMP accumulation. Compared to human MC3R, culter MC3R showed higher constitutive activity, higher efficacies, and R max to alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), des-α-MSH, and adrenocorticotrophic hormone. Both caMRAP2a and caMRAP2b markedly decreased caMC3R basal cAMP production. However, only caMRAP2a significantly decreased cell surface expression, B max, and R max of caMC3R. Expression analysis suggested that MRAP2a and MRAP2b might be more important in regulating MC3R/MC4R signaling during larval period, and reduced mc3r, mc4r, and pomc expression might be primarily involved in modulation of MC3R/MC4R in adults. These data indicated that the cloned caMC3R was a functional receptor. MRAP2a and MRAP2b had different effects on expression and signaling of caMC3R. In addition, expression analysis suggested that MRAP2s, receptors, and hormones might play different roles in regulating culter development and growth.

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          Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) Method.

          The two most commonly used methods to analyze data from real-time, quantitative PCR experiments are absolute quantification and relative quantification. Absolute quantification determines the input copy number, usually by relating the PCR signal to a standard curve. Relative quantification relates the PCR signal of the target transcript in a treatment group to that of another sample such as an untreated control. The 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method is a convenient way to analyze the relative changes in gene expression from real-time quantitative PCR experiments. The purpose of this report is to present the derivation, assumptions, and applications of the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method. In addition, we present the derivation and applications of two variations of the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method that may be useful in the analysis of real-time, quantitative PCR data. Copyright 2001 Elsevier Science (USA).
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            Targeted disruption of the melanocortin-4 receptor results in obesity in mice.

            The melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4-R) is a G protein-coupled, seven-transmembrane receptor expressed in the brain. Inactivation of this receptor by gene targeting results in mice that develop a maturity onset obesity syndrome associated with hyperphagia, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperglycemia. This syndrome recapitulates several of the characteristic features of the agouti obesity syndrome, which results from ectopic expression of agouti protein, a pigmentation factor normally expressed in the skin. Our data identify a novel signaling pathway in the mouse for body weight regulation and support a model in which the primary mechanism by which agouti induces obesity is chronic antagonism of the MC4-R.
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              Studies on the physiological functions of the melanocortin system.

              R D Cone (2006)
              The melanocortin system refers to a set of hormonal, neuropeptidergic, and paracrine signaling pathways that are defined by components that include the five G protein-coupled melanocortin receptors; peptide agonists derived from the proopiomelanocortin preprohormone precursor; and the endogenous antagonists, agouti and agouti-related protein. This signaling system regulates a remarkably diverse array of physiological functions including pigmentation, adrenocortical steroidogenesis, energy homeostasis, natriuresis, erectile responses, energy homeostasis, and exocrine gland secretion. There are many complex and unique aspects of melanocortin signaling, such as the existence of endogenous antagonists, the agouti proteins, that act at three of the five melanocortin receptors. However, there is an aspect of melanocortin signaling that has facilitated highly reductionist approaches aimed at understanding the physiological functions of each receptor and peptide: in contrast to many peptides, the melanocortin agonists and antagonists are expressed in a limited number of very discrete locations. Similarly, the melanocortin receptors are also expressed in a limited number of discrete locations where they tend to be involved in rather circumscribed physiological functions. This review examines my laboratory's participation in the cloning of the melanocortin receptors and characterization of their physiological roles.

                Author and article information

                Endocr Connect
                Endocr Connect
                Endocrine Connections
                Bioscientifica Ltd (Bristol )
                22 October 2021
                01 November 2021
                : 10
                : 11
                : 1489-1501
                [1 ]Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University , Auburn, Alabama, USA
                [2 ]State Key Laboratory of Developmental Biology of Freshwater Fish , College of Life Sciences, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence should be addressed to M Tao or Y-X Tao: minmindiu@ 123456126.com or taoyaxi@ 123456auburn.edu

                *(R-L Ji and L Huang contributed equally to this work)

                © The authors

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

                : 12 October 2021
                : 22 October 2021

                melanocortin-3 receptor,constitutive activity,melanocortin-2 receptor accessory protein 2,signaling,topmouth culter


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