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      AVE8134, a novel potent PPARα agonist, improves lipid profile and glucose metabolism in dyslipidemic mice and type 2 diabetic rats

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          Abstract

          Aim:

          AVE8134 is a structurally novel potent PPARα agonist. The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of AVE8134 on lipid profile and glucose metabolism in dyslipidemic mice and type 2 diabetic rats.

          Methods:

          A cell based PPAR Gal4 transactivation assay was constructed for testing the activities of AVE8134 at 3 different PPAR isoforms in vitro. Transgenic human Apo A1 (hApo A1) mice and insulin-resistant ZDF rats were used to evaluate the effects of AVE8134 in vivo.

          Results:

          AVE8134 was a full PPARα dominated PPAR agonist (the values of EC 50 for human and rodent PPARα receptor were 0.01 and 0.3 μmol/L, respectively). AVE8134 was not active at PPARδ receptor. In female hApo A1 mice, AVE8134 (1–30 mg·kg −1·d −1, po for 12 d) dose-dependently lowered the plasma triglycerides, and increased the serum HDL-cholesterol, hApo A1 and mouse Apo E levels. In female ZDF rats, AVE8134 (3–30 mg·kg −1·d −1 for 2 weeks) improved insulin-sensitivity index. In pre-diabetic male ZDF rats (at the age of 7 weeks), AVE8134 (10 mg·kg −1·d −1 for 8 weeks) produced an anti-diabetic action comparable to rosiglitazone, without the PPARγ mediated adverse effects on body weight and heart weight. In male ZDF rats (at the age of 6 weeks), AVE8134 (20 mg·kg −1·d −1 for 12 weeks) increased mRNA levels of the target genes LPL and PDK4 about 20 fold in the liver, and there was no relevant effect with rosiglitazone.

          Conclusion:

          AVE8134 improves lipid profile and glucose metabolism in dyslipidemic mice and type 2 diabetic rats.

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          Most cited references 25

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          Global prevalence of diabetes: estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030.

          The goal of this study was to estimate the prevalence of diabetes and the number of people of all ages with diabetes for years 2000 and 2030. Data on diabetes prevalence by age and sex from a limited number of countries were extrapolated to all 191 World Health Organization member states and applied to United Nations' population estimates for 2000 and 2030. Urban and rural populations were considered separately for developing countries. The prevalence of diabetes for all age-groups worldwide was estimated to be 2.8% in 2000 and 4.4% in 2030. The total number of people with diabetes is projected to rise from 171 million in 2000 to 366 million in 2030. The prevalence of diabetes is higher in men than women, but there are more women with diabetes than men. The urban population in developing countries is projected to double between 2000 and 2030. The most important demographic change to diabetes prevalence across the world appears to be the increase in the proportion of people >65 years of age. These findings indicate that the "diabetes epidemic" will continue even if levels of obesity remain constant. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, it is likely that these figures provide an underestimate of future diabetes prevalence.
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            Type 2 diabetes-a matter of beta-cell life and death?

            In type 2 diabetes, the beta cells of the pancreas fail to produce enough insulin to meet the body's demand, in part because of an acquired decrease in beta-cell mass. In adults, pancreatic beta-cell mass is controlled by several mechanisms, including beta-cell replication, neogenesis, hypertrophy, and survival. Here, I discuss evidence supporting the notion that increased beta-cell apoptosis is an important factor contributing to beta-cell loss and the onset of type 2 diabetes. Interestingly, a key signaling molecule that promotes beta-cell growth and survival, insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS-2), is a member of a family of proteins whose inhibition contributes to the development of insulin resistance in the liver and other insulin-responsive tissues. Thus, the IRS-2 pathway appears to be a crucial participant in the tenuous balance between effective pancreatic beta-cell mass and insulin resistance.
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              Effect of insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and intra-abdominal adiposity on the development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus.

               Daniel Rader (2007)
              Abdominal obesity contributes to insulin resistance, a metabolic abnormality linked to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Insulin resistance generally precedes the development of type 2 diabetes. Currently, an estimated 10 million US adults have diabetes and another 25 million have impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), an intermediate step between insulin resistance and diabetes. The pathophysiologic mechanisms known to increase CVD risk in individuals with insulin resistance include formation of advanced glycation end products, hypertension, proinflammatory and prothrombotic states, and dyslipidemia (i.e., low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, increased levels of triglycerides, small, dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol particles, apoplipoprotein B, and inflammation). The increased flux of free fatty acids from adipose tissue to the liver promotes dyslipidemia. Insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance are associated with increased CVD risk. Individuals with coexisting metabolic syndrome and diabetes have the highest prevalence rates of CVD. The Nurses' Health Study showed that CVD risk was elevated even before the development of diabetes compared with women who never developed diabetes. Lifestyle modification is recommended as the first-line treatment for obesity and its metabolic sequelae. Pharmacotherapy may be useful in patients for whom nonpharmacologic approaches alone are ineffective or insufficient. Primary care physicians play a critical role in the early identification and treatment of patients at increased risk for the development of type 2 diabetes and CVD because of their obesity and associated complications.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Acta Pharmacol Sin
                Acta Pharmacol. Sin
                Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
                Nature Publishing Group
                1671-4083
                1745-7254
                January 2012
                03 January 2012
                : 33
                : 1
                : 82-90
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Diabetes Division, Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbH , Frankfurt am Main, Germany
                Author notes
                [#]

                This paper is dedicated to the memory of Wolfgang WENDLER.

                Article
                aps2011165
                10.1038/aps.2011.165
                4010268
                22212431
                Copyright © 2012 CPS and SIMM
                Categories
                Original Article

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