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Design of a Customized Multipurpose Nano-Enabled Implantable System for In-Vivo Theranostics

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      Abstract

      The first part of this paper reviews the current development and key issues on implantable multi-sensor devices for in vivo theranostics. Afterwards, the authors propose an innovative biomedical multisensory system for in vivo biomarker monitoring that could be suitable for customized theranostics applications. At this point, findings suggest that cross-cutting Key Enabling Technologies (KETs) could improve the overall performance of the system given that the convergence of technologies in nanotechnology, biotechnology, micro&nanoelectronics and advanced materials permit the development of new medical devices of small dimensions, using biocompatible materials, and embedding reliable and targeted biosensors, high speed data communication, and even energy autonomy. Therefore, this article deals with new research and market challenges of implantable sensor devices, from the point of view of the pervasive system, and time-to-market. The remote clinical monitoring approach introduced in this paper could be based on an array of biosensors to extract information from the patient. A key contribution of the authors is that the general architecture introduced in this paper would require minor modifications for the final customized bio-implantable medical device.

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      We report classes of electronic systems that achieve thicknesses, effective elastic moduli, bending stiffnesses, and areal mass densities matched to the epidermis. Unlike traditional wafer-based technologies, laminating such devices onto the skin leads to conformal contact and adequate adhesion based on van der Waals interactions alone, in a manner that is mechanically invisible to the user. We describe systems incorporating electrophysiological, temperature, and strain sensors, as well as transistors, light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, radio frequency inductors, capacitors, oscillators, and rectifying diodes. Solar cells and wireless coils provide options for power supply. We used this type of technology to measure electrical activity produced by the heart, brain, and skeletal muscles and show that the resulting data contain sufficient information for an unusual type of computer game controller.
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        Wearable systems that monitor muscle activity, store data and deliver feedback therapy are the next frontier in personalized medicine and healthcare. However, technical challenges, such as the fabrication of high-performance, energy-efficient sensors and memory modules that are in intimate mechanical contact with soft tissues, in conjunction with controlled delivery of therapeutic agents, limit the wide-scale adoption of such systems. Here, we describe materials, mechanics and designs for multifunctional, wearable-on-the-skin systems that address these challenges via monolithic integration of nanomembranes fabricated with a top-down approach, nanoparticles assembled by bottom-up methods, and stretchable electronics on a tissue-like polymeric substrate. Representative examples of such systems include physiological sensors, non-volatile memory and drug-release actuators. Quantitative analyses of the electronics, mechanics, heat-transfer and drug-diffusion characteristics validate the operation of individual components, thereby enabling system-level multifunctionalities.
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          The big picture on nanomedicine: the state of investigational and approved nanomedicine products.

          Developments in nanomedicine are expected to provide solutions to many of modern medicine's unsolved problems, so it is no surprise that the literature contains many articles discussing the subject. However, existing reviews tend to focus on specific sectors of nanomedicine or to take a very forward-looking stance and fail to provide a complete perspective on the current landscape. This article provides a more comprehensive and contemporary inventory of nanomedicine products. A keyword search of literature, clinical trial registries, and the Web yielded 247 nanomedicine products that are approved or in various stages of clinical study. Specific information on each was gathered, so the overall field could be described based on various dimensions, including FDA classification, approval status, nanoscale size, treated condition, nanostructure, and others. In addition to documenting the many nanomedicine products already in use in humans, this study identifies several interesting trends forecasting the future of nanomedicine. In this one of a kind review, the state of nanomedicine commercialization is discussed, concentrating only on nanomedicine-based developments and products that are either in clinical trials or have already been approved for use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ] Department of Electronics, Bioelectronics and Nanobioengineering Research Group (SIC-BIO), University of Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain; E-Mails: pmiribel@ 123456el.ub.edu (P.L.M.-C.); cpaezaviles@ 123456el.ub.edu (C.P.A.); jcolomer@ 123456el.ub.edu (J.C.-F.); jsamitier@ 123456ibecbarcelona.eu (J.S.)
            [2 ] Department of Public Economy, Political Economy and Spanish Economy, University of Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 690-696, Barcelona 08034, Spain; E-Mail: manel.gonzalez@ 123456ub.edu
            [3 ] CREB-Biomedical Engineering Research Centre, Technical University of Catalonia, Pau Gargallo 5, Barcelona 08028, Spain
            [4 ] IBEC-Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia, Nanobioengineering Research Group, Baldiri Reixac 10-12, Barcelona 08028, Spain
            [5 ] CIBER-BBN-Biomedical Research Networking Center in Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine, María de Luna 11, Edificio CEEI, Zaragoza 50018, Spain
            Author notes

            External Editor: Andrew J. Mason

            [* ] Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: ejuanola@ 123456el.ub.edu ; Tel.: +34-934-037-247; Fax: +34-934-021-141
            Journal
            Sensors (Basel)
            Sensors (Basel)
            Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)
            MDPI
            1424-8220
            October 2014
            16 October 2014
            : 14
            : 10
            : 19275-19306
            25325336 4239942 10.3390/s141019275 sensors-14-19275
            © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

            This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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