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      Subdivisions of the adult zebrafish pallium based on molecular marker analysis

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          Background: The telencephalon shows a remarkable structural diversity among vertebrates. In particular, the everted telencephalon of ray-finned fishes has a markedly different morphology compared to the evaginated telencephalon of all other vertebrates. This difference in development has hampered the comparison between different areas of the pallium of ray-finned fishes and the pallial nuclei of all other vertebrates. Various models of homology between pallial subdivisions in ray-finned fishes and the pallial nuclei in tetrapods have been proposed based on connectional, neurochemical, gene expression and functional data. However, no consensus has been reached so far. In recent years, the analysis of conserved developmental marker genes has assisted the identification of homologies for different parts of the telencephalon among several tetrapod species.

          Results: We have investigated the gene expression pattern of conserved marker genes in the adult zebrafish ( Danio rerio) pallium to identify pallial subdivisions and their homology to pallial nuclei in tetrapods. Combinatorial expression analysis of ascl1a, eomesa, emx1, emx2, emx3, and Prox1 identifies four main divisions in the adult zebrafish pallium. Within these subdivisions, we propose that Dm is homologous to the pallial amygdala in tetrapods and that the dorsal subdivision of Dl is homologous to part of the hippocampal formation in mouse. We have complemented this analysis be examining the gene expression of emx1, emx2 and emx3 in the zebrafish larval brain.

          Conclusions: Based on our gene expression data, we propose a new model of subdivisions in the adult zebrafish pallium and their putative homologies to pallial nuclei in tetrapods. Pallial nuclei control sensory, motor, and cognitive functions, like memory, learning and emotion. The identification of pallial subdivisions in the adult zebrafish and their homologies to pallial nuclei in tetrapods will contribute to the use of the zebrafish system as a model for neurobiological research and human neurodegenerative diseases.

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          The vertebrate mesolimbic reward system and social behavior network: a comparative synthesis.

          All animals evaluate the salience of external stimuli and integrate them with internal physiological information into adaptive behavior. Natural and sexual selection impinge on these processes, yet our understanding of behavioral decision-making mechanisms and their evolution is still very limited. Insights from mammals indicate that two neural circuits are of crucial importance in this context: the social behavior network and the mesolimbic reward system. Here we review evidence from neurochemical, tract-tracing, developmental, and functional lesion/stimulation studies that delineates homology relationships for most of the nodes of these two circuits across the five major vertebrate lineages: mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and teleost fish. We provide for the first time a comprehensive comparative analysis of the two neural circuits and conclude that they were already present in early vertebrates. We also propose that these circuits form a larger social decision-making (SDM) network that regulates adaptive behavior. Our synthesis thus provides an important foundation for understanding the evolution of the neural mechanisms underlying reward processing and behavioral regulation. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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            Pallial and subpallial derivatives in the embryonic chick and mouse telencephalon, traced by the expression of the genes Dlx-2, Emx-1, Nkx-2.1, Pax-6, and Tbr-1.

            Pallial and subpallial morphological subdivisions of the developing chicken telencephalon were examined by means of gene markers, compared with their expression pattern in the mouse. Nested expression domains of the genes Dlx-2 and Nkx-2.1, plus Pax-6-expressing migrated cells, are characteristic for the mouse subpallium. The genes Pax-6, Tbr-1, and Emx-1 are expressed in the pallium. The pallio-subpallial boundary lies at the interface between the Tbr-1 and Dlx-2 expression domains. Differences in the expression topography of Tbr-1 and Emx-1 suggest the existence of a novel "ventral pallium" subdivision, which is an Emx-1-negative pallial territory intercalated between the striatum and the lateral pallium. Its derivatives in the mouse belong to the claustroamygdaloid complex. Chicken genes homologous to these mouse genes are expressed in topologically comparable patterns during development. The avian subpallium, called "paleostriatum," shows nested Dlx-2 and Nkx-2.1 domains and migrated Pax-6-positive neurons; the avian pallium expresses Pax-6, Tbr-1, and Emx-1 and also contains a distinct Emx-1-negative ventral pallium, formed by the massive domain confusingly called "neostriatum." These expression patterns extend into the septum and the archistriatum, as they do into the mouse septum and amygdala, suggesting that the concepts of pallium and subpallium can be extended to these areas. The similarity of such molecular profiles in the mouse and chicken pallium and subpallium points to common sets of causal determinants. These may underlie similar histogenetic specification processes and field homologies, including some comparable connectivity patterns. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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              Production of clones of homozygous diploid zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio).

              Homozygous diploid zebra fish have been produced on a large scale by the application of simple physical treatments. Clones of homozygous fish have been produced from individual homozygotes. These clones and associated genetic methods will facilitate genetic analyses of this vertebrate.

                Author and article information

                F1000Research (London, UK )
                17 December 2014
                : 3
                [1 ]Biotechnology Center, and DFG-Research Center for Regenerative Therapies Dresden, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, 01307, Germany
                [2 ]Institute of Neuroscience, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403, USA
                [3 ]Present address: Faculty of Medicine, Nursing Health Sciences Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, 3800, Australia
                [1 ]Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University College London, London, UK
                [1 ]Institute of Biomedicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
                [1 ]Department of Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of A Coruña, A Coruña, Spain
                Author notes

                JG and MB conceived of the study and the experimental design, analyzed the data and co-wrote the manuscript. JG carried out most of the experiments, MB coordinated and supervised the study. VK performed the Prox1 immunohistochemistry. DF performed the ascl1a in situ hybridization. AM and MG performed the in situ hybridizations on larval brains. IB performed phylogenetic and synteny analyses. JK participated in the design of the study and helped analyze the data. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

                Competing interests: No competing interests were disclosed.

                Competing interests: No competing interests were disclosed.

                Competing interests: No competing interests were disclosed.

                Competing interests: No competing interests were disclosed.

                Copyright: © 2014 Ganz J et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licence, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Data associated with the article are available under the terms of the Creative Commons Zero "No rights reserved" data waiver (CC0 1.0 Public domain dedication).

                Funded by: Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft
                Award ID: SFB 655 A3
                Funded by: European Union (ZF-Health)
                Funded by: Center for Regenerative Therapies Dresden (CRTD)
                This work was supported by grants to MB from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (SFB 655 A3), European Union (ZF-Health) and the Center for Regenerative Therapies Dresden (CRTD).
                The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Research Article
                Developmental Molecular Mechanisms
                Pattern Formation


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