Kaitlyn Sadtler 1 , Kenneth Estrellas 1 , Brian W Allen 1 , Matthew T Wolf 1 , Hongni Fan 2 , Ada J Tam 2 , Chirag H Patel 2 , Brandon S Luber 3 , Hao Wang 3 , Kathryn R Wagner 4 , Jonathan D Powell 2 , Franck Housseau 2 , Drew M Pardoll 2 , Jennifer H Elisseeff 1
Apr 15 2016
Immune-mediated tissue regeneration driven by a biomaterial scaffold is emerging as an innovative regenerative strategy to repair damaged tissues. We investigated how biomaterial scaffolds shape the immune microenvironment in traumatic muscle wounds to improve tissue regeneration. The scaffolds induced a pro-regenerative response, characterized by an mTOR/Rictor-dependent T helper 2 pathway that guides interleukin-4-dependent macrophage polarization, which is critical for functional muscle recovery. Manipulating the adaptive immune system using biomaterials engineering may support the development of therapies that promote both systemic and local pro-regenerative immune responses, ultimately stimulating tissue repair.